Vol. 9 No. 3 (2021): Business & Management Studies: An International Journal
Articles

The effect of occupational commitment and mobbing on the intention to leave in road transportation during the COVID-19 pandemic period

Gözde Yangınlar
Assoc. Prof. Dr., İstanbul Ticaret University
Bio
Nurgün Bal
Assist. Prof. Dr., Beykent University
Bio

Published 2021-09-24

Keywords

  • COVİD-19, Karayolu Taşımacılığı, Meslekî Bağlılık, Mobbing, İşten Ayrılma Niyeti
  • COVID-19, Road Transportation, Occupational Commitment, Mobbing, Intention to Leave

How to Cite

Yangınlar, G., & Bal, N. (2021). The effect of occupational commitment and mobbing on the intention to leave in road transportation during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, 9(3), 835-850. https://doi.org/10.15295/bmij.v9i3.1829

Abstract

The road transportation sector is an integral part of foreign trade and the locomotive of economic development. The COVID-19 outbreak caused the closure of customs gates for a certain period in addition to a decrease in demand for goods and services and thus profoundly affected the road transport industry. For businesses operating in the road transportation sector, occupational commitment and exposure to mobbing of employees during the pandemic are vital in terms of business performance. This study examines occupational commitment and mobbing on the intention to leave during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although there are many studies in the literature on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been no study examining the relationship between these three variables in the road transportation industry.  This study is the first empirical study to examine variables such as intention to leave, mobbing, and professional commitment during the pandemic period in Turkey. The research universe consists of 45 logistics companies that provide transportation, customs clearance, storage, insurance, logistics value-added services. The sample consists of businesses engaged in national and international road transport, strengthening the representation ability. As a result of the study, it was determined that mobbing sub-factors did not decrease emotional, occupational commitment, and mobbing increased the intention to leave. Thus, it has been proven that there is a negative relationship between emotional and normative occupational commitment and intention to leave. It is expected that this study will contribute significantly to the businesses and the literature operating in road transportation during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

  1. Abdallaa, M.J., Said, H., Ali, L., Ali, F., Chen, X. (2021). COVID-19 and unpaid leave: Impacts of psychological contract breach on organizational distrust and turnover intention: Mediating role of emotional exhaustion, Tourism Management Perspectives, 39, 1-9.
  2. Acar, Z., Çakmak, E. (2013). Depolama ve Depo Yönetimi, Nobel Yayıncılık, Ankara.
  3. Akbal, H. (2020). COVID-19 pandemisinin sağlık tedarik zincirine kamçı etkisi, Kesit Akademi Dergisi, 6 (25), 181-192.
  4. Akçaci, T., Çınarlıoğlu, S.M. (2020). Yeni koronavirüs (COVİD-19) salgınının lojistik ve ticarete etkisi. Gaziantep University Journal of Social Sciences, Special issue, 447–456.
  5. Allen, N.J., Meyer, J.P. (1990), The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization, Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63 (1): 1–18.
  6. Allen, D.G., Weeks, K.P., Moffitt, K.R. (2005), Turnover intentions and voluntary turnover: the moderating roles of self-monitoring, locus of control, proactive personality and risk a version, Journal of Applied Psychology, 90 (5), 980-990.
  7. Altunay, E., Oral, G., Yalçınkaya, M. (2014). Eğitim kurumlarında mobbing uygulamalarına ilişkin nitel bir araştırma. Sakarya University Journal of Education, 4(1), 62–80.
  8. Arıkan Saltık, I., Avcı, U., Kaya, U. (2016). Mesleki bağlılık ve mesleği bırakma niyeti üzerinde etken faktörler olarak birey-meslek uyumu ve mesleğin sosyal statüsü: Turizm sektöründe görgül bir araştırma, Journal of Business Research - Turk 8(3):42–63.
  9. Baysal, A.C., Paksoy, M. (1999). Mesleğe ve örgüte bağlılığın çok yönlü incelenmesinde Meyer-Allen Modeli. İ.Ü.İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 28 (1), 7-15.
  10. Blau, G. (2003). Testing for a four-dimensional structure of occupational commitment. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76, 469-488.
  11. Browne, M. N., Smith, M. A. (2008). Mobbing in the workplace: the latest illustration of pervasive individualism in American law, Employee Rights and Employment Policy Journal, 12, 131-161.
  12. Carson, K., Carson, P., Philips, J., Roe, C. (1996). A career entrenchment model: Theoretical development and empirical outcomes, Journal of Career Development, 22, 273-286.
  13. Cho, S., Johanson, M. M., Guchait, P. (2009). Employees intent to leave: A comparison of determinants of intent to leave versus intent to stay, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28 (3), 374-381.
  14. Clarke, J. (2002). Maymuncuk: İşyerinde İletişim ve Politika. İstanbul: Mess.
  15. Cohen, A. (2000), The Relationship between commitment forms and work outcomes: a comparison of three models, Human Relations, 53(3): 387–418.
  16. Cotton, J. L., Tuttle, J. M. (1986). Employee turnover: A meta-analysis and review with ımplications for research, Academy of Management Review, 11(1), 55-70.
  17. Cunningham, J.B., MacGregor, J. (2000). Trust and the design of work complementary constructs ın satisfaction and performance human relations, Human Relations, 53 (12), 1575-1591.
  18. Davenport, N., Schwartz, R.D., Elliott, G.P. (2003) Mobbing: İşyerinde Duygusal Taciz.(Çev.: Osman Cem Önertoy), İstanbul, Sistem Yayıncılık.
  19. Doğan, A. (2014). Karayolu yük taşımacılığı, Beta Yayıncılık, İstanbul.
  20. Einarsen, S., Skogstad, A., Rørvik, E., Lande, A.B., Nielsen, M.B. (2018). Climate for conflict management, exposure to workplace bullying and work engagement: A Moderated Mediation Analysis. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29 (3),549–70.
  21. Elchardus, M., Smits, W. (2008). The vanishing flexible: Ambition, self-realization and flexibility in the career perspectives of young Belgian adults, Work, Employment and Society, 22 (2): 243-262.
  22. Erdirençelebi, M., Filizöz, B. (2016). Mobbingin etik iklim ve çalışanların işten ayrılma niyeti üzerine etkileri, Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 35, 127-139.
  23. Feldman, D.C., Arnold, H.J. (1983). Managing Individual and Group Behavior in Organizations. New York: McGraw- Hill College.
  24. Genç, E., Kaya, E. (2021). COVID-19 pandemi sürecindeki gümrük mevzuatı değişikliklerinin lojistik faaliyetlerine ve çalışanların iş motivasyonuna etkisi. Eurasian Journal of Researches in Social and Economics, 8(1), 161–175.
  25. Goulet, L.R., Singh, P. (2002). Career commitment: A reexamination and external, personal and work-related variables. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 52, 260-269.
  26. Griffeth, R. W., Hom, P. W., Gaertner, S. (2000). A Meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator tests, and research ımplications for the next millennium, Journal of Management, 26 (3), 463-488.
  27. Gül, H., Oktay E., Gökçe, H. (2008). İş tatmini, stres, örgütsel bağlılık, işten ayrılma niyeti ve performans arasındaki ilişkiler: sağlık sektöründe bir uygulama, Uluslarası Hakemli Sosyal Bilimler E-Dergisi Akademik Bakış Dergisi, 20, 1-11.
  28. Harvey, P., Harris, K. J., Martinko, M. J. (2008). The mediated ınfluence of hostile attributional style on turnover ıntentions, Journal of Business and Psychology, 22 (4), 333-343.
  29. Hsiao, A., Auld, C., Ma, E. (2015). Perceived organizational diversity and employee behavior. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 48, 102–112.
  30. Huff, L., Kelley, L. (2003), Levels of organizational trust in individualist versus collectivist societies: a seven-nation study, Organizational Science, 14, 1, 81-90.
  31. Hughes, L. W., Avey, J. B., Nixon, D.R. (2010). Relationships between leadership and followers’ quitting intentions and job search behaviors. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 17(4), 351-362
  32. ILO. (2021). COVID-19 Pandemic. 6 Mart 2021, https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/documents/briefingnote/wcms_767028.pdf
  33. Ivanov, D. (2020). Predicting the impacts of epidemic outbreaks on global supply chains: A simulation-based analysis on the coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2) case. Transportation Research Part E, 136, 101922.
  34. Kanten P. (2014). İşyeri nezaketsizliğinin sosyal kaytarma davranışı ve işten ayrılma niyeti üzerindeki etkisinde duygusal tükenmenin aracılık rolü. Aksaray Üniversitesi İktisadi İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 6 (1), 11-26.
  35. Karacan, S., Kaya, M. (2011). Lojistik faaliyetlerde maliyetleme, Umuttepe Yayınevi, Kocaeli.
  36. Karasar, N. (1998). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.
  37. Karayolları Genel Müdürlüğü (2021). Ulaşım verileri.
  38. https://www.kgm.gov.tr/Sayfalar/KGM/SiteTr/Istatistikler/TrafikveUlasim.aspx
  39. Karlı, H., Tanyaş, M. (2019). Pandemi̇ durumunda tedari̇k zi̇nci̇ri̇ ri̇sk yöneti̇mi̇ne i̇li̇şki̇n öneri̇ler. İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi COVID-19 Sosyal Bilimler Özel Sayısı, 37, 174–190.)
  40. Kaur, B., Mohindru, P.D. (2013). Antecedents of turnover intentions: A literature review. Global Journal of Management and Business Studies, 3(10), 1219-1230.
  41. Koban, E., Yıldırır Keser, H. (2011). Dış Ticarette Lojistik, Ekin Yayınevi, Bursa.
  42. Kudielka, B.M. (2004). Cortisol day profiles in victims of mobbing, Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 56, 149-150.
  43. Lagerlund, M., Sharp, L., Lindqvist, R., Runesdotter, S., Tishelman, C., (2015). Intention to leave the workplace among nurses working with cancer patients in acute care hospitals in Sweden, European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 19, 629-637.
  44. Laleoğlu, A., Özmete, E. (2013). Mobbing ölçeği: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması, Sosyal Politika Çalışmaları, 1(31), 9-31.
  45. Law, R., Dollard, M. F., Tuckey, M. R., & Dormann, C. (2011). Psychosocial safety climate as a lead indicator of workplace bullying and harassment, job resources, psychological health and employee engagement. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43, 1782–1793.
  46. Liu, W., Liang, Y., Bao, X., Qin, J., Lim, M.K. (2020). China’s Logistics development trends in the post COVID-19 Era. International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications, 1–12.
  47. Loske, D. (2020). The Impact of COVID-19 on transport volume and freight capacity dynamics: an empirical analysis in german food retail logistics. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 6:1–6.
  48. Meyer, J.P., Allen, N.J. ve Smith, C.A. (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations: extensions and test of a three-component conceptualization. Journal Of Applied Psychology, 78, 538-551.
  49. Meyer, J.P. Stanley, D.J., Herscovitch, L., Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A Meta-Analysis of Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61(1), 20-52.
  50. Mogaji, E. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 on transportation in Lagos, Nigeria. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 6, 1–7.
  51. Morrow, P.C. (1993). The theory and measurement of work commitment. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press
  52. Nakiboğlu, G. (2020). COVID-19 döneminde küresel tedarik zincirlerinde yaşananlar ve dönüşüm. Çağ Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 17(2), 1–16.
  53. Pilikoğlu, A., Sağlam, M., (2020). COVİD-19 pandemi sürecinde ve endüstri 4.0 çerçevesinde tedarik zinciri uygulamalarının değerlendirilmesi: lojistik sektöründe bir uygulama, Journal of Current Research on Social Sciences, 10(4), 853-866.
  54. Power, J.L., Brotheridge, C. M., Blenkinsopp, J., Bowes-Sperry, L., Bozionelos, N., Buzády, Z., Chuang, A., Drnevich, D., Garzon-Vico, A., Leighton, C., Madero, S. M., Mak, W. M., Mathew, R., Monserrat, S. I., Mujtaba, B. G., Olivas-Lujan, M. R., Polycroniou, P., Sprigg, C. A., Axtell, C., Holman, D., Ruiz-Gutiérrez, J. A., Nnedumm, A.U.O. (2013). Acceptability of workplace bullying: A comparative study on six continents. Journal of Business Research, 66(3), 374-380.
  55. Rusbelt, C. A., Farrell, D., Rogers, G., Mainous, A. (1988). Impact of exchange variables on exit, voice, loyalty and neglect: an integrative model of responses to decline job satisfaction, Academy of Management Journal, 31(3), 599- 627.
  56. Said, R.M., El-Shafei, D.A. (2021). Occupational stress, job satisfaction, and intent to leave: nurses working on front lines during COVID-19 pandemic in Zagazig City, Egypt, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28, 8791–8801.
  57. Saladie, O., Bustamante, E., Gutierrez, A. (2020). COVID-19 lockdown and reduction of traffic accidents in Tarragona province. Spain. Transport. Res. Interdiscip. Perspect. 8.
  58. Salin, D. (2001) Prevalence and Forms of Bullying among Business Professionals: A Comparison of Two Different Strategies for Measuring Bullying, European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10(4): 425-441.
  59. Saruhan, Ş.C., Özdemirci, A. (2016). Bilim, Felsefe ve Metodoloji. 4. Press. İstanbul: Beta Press.
  60. Senir, G. (2021). COVID-19 salgınında insani yardım lojistiğinin ve tedarik zinciri yönetiminin önemi. Fiscaoeconomia, 5(1), 296–308.
  61. Tak, B., Çiftçioğlu, B. A. (2007). Mesleki bağlılık ve çalışanları örgütte kalma niyeti arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemeye yönelik görgül bir çalışma. Ankara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Dergisi, 63 (4), 155-178.
  62. Takase, M., Maude, P., Manias, E., (2005). Nurses’ job dissatisfaction and turnover intention: methodological myths and an alternative approach. Nursing and Health Sciences, 7, 209-217.
  63. Taşkın, E., Durmaz, Y. (2012). Lojistik Faaliyetler, Detay Yayıncılık, Ankara.
  64. Teng, Chih-Ching. (2008). The effects of personality traits and attitudes on student uptake in hospitality employment. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27, 76–86.
  65. Tuna, M., Yerlitaş, M. (2014). Etik iklim, işe yabancılaşma ve örgütsel özdeşleşmenin işten ayrılma niyeti üzerindeki etkisi: Otel işletmelerinde bir araştırma. Anatolia: Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, Cilt 25 (1), 105 – 117.
  66. Uştu, H., Tümkaya, S. (2017). Sınıf öğretmenlerinin mesleki bağlılık, işten ayrılma niyeti ve bazı sosyo-demografik özelliklerinin örgütsel bağlılığı yordama düzeylerinin incelenmesi. Elementary Education Online, 16(3), 1262-1274.
  67. Vandekerckhove, W., Commers, M.S. (2003). Downward workplace mobbing: A Sign of the Times? Journal of Business Ethics, 45,41–50.
  68. Varol, F., Karaer, M., Ortakarpuz, M. (2017). İlaç mümessillerinin örgütsel bağlılığının, iş tatmininin ve işten ayrılma niyetinin demografik faktörler bağlamında incelenmesi. International Periodical for the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic, 12(31), 279-302.
  69. Vartia, M. (2001). Consequences of workplace bullying with respect to the well-being of ıts targets and the observers of bullying. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 27(1), 63-69.
  70. Weisberg, J., Kirsschenbaum, A. (1991). Employee turnover intentions: Implications from a national sample. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2(3), 359-375.
  71. Wildes Vivienne J. (2004). Stigma in food service work: How it affects restaurant servers’ ıntention to stay in the business or recommend a job to another, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 5(3), 213-233.
  72. Yapıcı Akar, N., Anafarta, N., Sarvan, F. (2011). Causes, Dimensions and Organizational Consequences of Mobbing: An Empirical Study. Ege Akademik Bakis (Ege Academic Review) 11(1), 179–179.
  73. Yildiz, S.M. (2018). An empirical analysis of the leader-member exchange and employee turnover intentions mediated by mobbing: Evidence from Sports Organisations. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istrazivanja 31(1), 480–97.