Albareto, G., & Mistrulli, P. (2010). Immigrant financial inclusion and the cost of credit. Available at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Giorgio_Albareto/publication/264891146_Immigrant_Financial_Inclusion
_and_the_Cost_of_Credit/links/546f6de60cf24af340c08be4.pdf. Accessed on 02/11/2018.
Anderson, S., & Platzer, M. (2007). American Made: The Impact of Immigrant Entrepreneurs and Professionals on U.S. Competitiveness. Arlington: National Venture Capital Association.
Bailey, T. (1987). Immigrant and Native Workers. Boulder: Westview Press.
Beckinsale, M., Monder, R., & Nicholas, T. (2011). “ICT adoption and E-business development: Understanding ICT adoption amongst ethnic minority businesses”, International Small Business Journal, 29(3), 193–219.
Blackburn, R., Smallbone, D., & Bannon, K. (2006). Mainstreaming the REFLEX model: a review of the potential for mainstreaming and responses from the mainstream. London: Small Business Research Centre, Kingston University.
Clark, K., & Drinkwater, S. (2010). “Recent trends in minority ethnic entrepreneurship in Britain”, International Small Business Journal, April 28, 136–146.
Currarini, S., Matheson, J., & Vega-Redondo, F. (2016). “A simple model of homophily in social networks”, European Economic Review, 90, 18–39.
Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (DBIS): BIS Small Business Survey (2010), “Minority Ethnic Group (MEG) led businesses boost”, June 2011. Available at https://www.gov.uk/.../11-p74-bis-small Accessed on 12/12/2013. Report prepared for the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (DBIS).
Desiderio, M. (2014). Policies to support immigrant entrepreneurship. Washington, D.C: Migration Policy Institute and Transatlantic Council on Migration.
Drori, I., Honig, B., & Wright, M. (2009). “Transnational entrepreneurship: An emergent field of study”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(5), 1001–1022.
Haq, M. (2015). “South Asian ethnic minority small and medium enterprises in the UK: a review and research agenda”, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 25(4), 494–516.
Haque, A., Aston, J., & Kozlovski, E. (2016). “Do Causes and Consequences of Stress Affect Genders Differently at Operational Level? Comparison of the IT Sectors in the UK and Pakistan”, International Journal of Applied Business and Management Studies, 1(1), 1–7.
Haque, A., Aston, J., & Kozlovski, E. (2018). “The impact of stressors on organisational commitment of managerial and non-managerial personnel in contrasting economies: Evidences from Canada and Pakistan”, International Journal of Business, 23(2), 168–182.
Hebert, R., & Link, A. (1989). “In search of the meaning of entrepreneurship”, Small Business Economics, 1(1), 39 49. Higon, D. (2011). “The impact of ICT on innovation activities: Evidence for UK SMEs”, International Small Business Journal, 30, 684–699.
Kloosterman, R., & Rath, J. (2001). “Immigrant entrepreneurs in advanced economies: mixed embeddedness further explored”, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 27(2), 189–201.
Kordestani, A., Sattari, S., Peighambari, K., & Oghazi, P. (2017). “Exclude Me Not: The Untold Story of Immigrant Entrepreneurs in Sweden”, Sustainability, 9(9), 1584.
Light, I., & Gold, S. (2000). Ethnic Economies. San Diego: Academic Press.
Mwaura, S., Levie, J., Lassalle, P., Stoyanov, S., & Carter, S. (2018). Taking steps to combat barriers to ethnic minority enterprise in Scotland. Report, available at https://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/64513/ accessed on 23/07/2018.
Nair, S., Aston, J., & Kozlovski, E. (2017). “How ‘organizational factors’ outclass ‘personal factors’ in retaining female employees in Indian IT SMEs”, International Journal of Applied Business and Management Studies, 2, 22 36.
Nathan, M., Rolfe, H., & Vargas-Silva, C. (2013). The Economic and Labour Market Impacts of Tier 1 entrepreneur and investor migrants. Report to the Migration Advisory Committee. www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/aboutus/workingwithus/mac/econ omic-research. pdf. Accessed on 15/12/18.
Noy, C. (2008). “Sampling knowledge: The hermeneutics of snowball sampling in qualitative research”, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 11, 327–344.
Portes, A., & Bach, R. (1985). Latin journey: Cuban and Mexican immigrants in the United States. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Portes, A., & Jensen, L. (1989). “The enclave and the entrants: Patterns of ethnic enterprise in Miami before and after Mariel”, American Sociological Review, 54, 929–949.
Portes, A. (1981). “Modes of structural incorporation and present theories of labour immigrations”, in: Kritz, M.M., Keely, C.B. and Tomasi, S.M., (Eds.). Global Trends in Migration. Staten Island, NY: CMS Press, 279–297.
Rahman, M., Ullah, F., & Thompson, P. (2018). “Challenges and issues facing ethnic minority small business owners: The Scottish experience”, The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 19(3), 177–193.
Ram, M., & Jones, T. (2008). “Ethnic-minority businesses in the UK: a review of research and policy developments”, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 26 (2): pp.352–374.
Ram, M., Jones, T., & Villares-Varela, M. (2017). “Migrant entrepreneurship: Reflections on research and practice”, International Small Business Journal, 35(1), 3–18.
Sahlman, W., & Stevenson, H. (1991). ‘Introduction’, in: Sahlman, W.A and Stevenson, H.H., (Eds.). The Entrepreneurial Venture. Boston: McGraw Hill.
Sanders, J., & Nee, V. (1987a). “Limits of ethnic solidarity in the enclave economy”, American Sociological Review, 52, 745–767.
Saxenian, A. (2002). “Silicon Valley’s New Immigrant High-Growth Entrepreneurs”, Economic Development Quarterly, 16(1), 20–31.
Saxenian, A. (2005). “From brain drain to brain circulation: Transnational communities and regional upgrading in India and China”, Studies in Comparative International Development, 40(2), 35–61.
Schiller, N., & Çağlar, A. (2013). “Locating migrant pathways of economic emplacement: Thinking beyond the ethnic lens”, Ethnicities, 13(4), 494–514.
Shah, M., & Ram, M. (2006). “Supplier diversity and minority business enterprise development: case study experience of three US multinationals”, Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 11(1), 75–81.
Shelton, L., & Minniti, M. (2018). “Enhancing product market access: Minority entrepreneurship, status leveraging, and preferential procurement programs, Small Business Economics, 50(3), 481–498.
Sonfield, M. (2014). “Ethnic minority businesses and targeted assistance programs in the US and the UK: A comparison and implications”, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 21(2), 199–211.
Stoyanov, S., Woodward, R., & Stoyanova, V. (2018). “The Embedding of Transnational Entrepreneurs in Diaspora Networks: Leveraging the Assets of Foreignness”, Management International Review, 58(2), 281–312.
Thandi, H., & Dini, K. (2009). “Unleashing ethnic entrepreneurship: proactive policy-making in a changing Europe”, International Journal of Business and Globalisation, 4(1), 35–54.
Varma, R. (2011). “Transnational Migration and Entrepreneurialism: Indians in the US Technology Sector”, Perspectives on Global Development and Technology, 10(2), 270–287.
Waldinger, R., Aldrich, H., & Ward, R. (1990). Ethnic entrepreneurs: Immigrant business in industrial societies (1). Sage Publications, Inc. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign’s Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship.
Wang, C., & Altinay, L. (2012). “Social embeddedness, entrepreneurial orientation and firm growth in ethnic minority small businesses in the UK”, International Small Business Journal, 30(1), 3–23.
Williams, D., Gavino, M., & Jacobson, D. (2017). “Latino Entrepreneurs and Technology Usage: Ethnic Identity, Resistance, Self-Efficacy”, Journal of Business Diversity, 17(1), 93-109.
Xie, Y., & Gough, M. (2011). “Ethnic enclaves and the earnings of immigrants”, Demography, 48(4), 1293–1315.
Zhou, M. (2004). “Revisiting ethnic entrepreneurship: convergences, controversies, and conceptual advancements”, International Migration Review, 38(3), 1040–1074.
- Abstract viewed - 506 times
- PDF downloaded - 367 times
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
© Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, 2018
Cardiff Metropolitan University
Affiliation not stated
Affiliation not stated
How to Cite
THE POLICY PARADOX: BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN ETHNIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND IMMIGRANT INTEGRATION POLICIES
Vol 6 No 3 (2018): BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT STUDIES: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
Submitted: Feb 18, 2019
Published: Nov 29, 2018
This paper proposes an integrative framework and recommendations for enhancing public sector support utilisation amongst Ethnic Entrepreneurs (EEs) in the UK. The role of entrepreneurial IT adoption in an ethnic enclave is examined as a key factor affecting policy practice. The paper draws on interviews based on a purposive sample of 20 South Asian EEs with various capacities such as academic skills and the level of IT adoption. The findings show that despite the presence of relevant policies, the utilisation and awareness of public sector support are insufficient amongst EEs due to issues associated with trust, bureaucracy, time and communication. It is recommended that the entrepreneurial framework should facilitate the direct reaching of the targeted EE groups. This can be achieved by featuring network dynamics to improve attitudes towards the propitiousness of public support services, using appropriately selected role models. This study is one of the first attempts to incorporate ethnic entrepreneurship into the national immigrant integration agendas.