THE MEDIATING ROLE OF WORK- FAMILY CONFLICT ON THE EFFECT OF WORKLOAD OVERVIEW ON THE QUALITY OF LIFE: AN IMPLEMENTATION IN THE HEALTH SECTOR
1.1. RESEARCH SUBJECT
The study, which covers a significant part of daily time, is important because it leads the life of the individual and his family. Therefore, emotions, meanings and values for the study gain importance. In the life of people, the bonds outside of work are continuing with family, friends, relatives and non-governmental organizations. While establishing these ties, the most important issue is the relations with people's families. For this reason, people's expectations regarding life are related to the jobs they spend most of their daily lives or their families.
The perception of the individual that the work undertaken at the institution where he works is above the normal is called workload. For most jobs, it is possible to say that this concept has abstract content based on perception (if the natural burden of the work is not calculated) (Keser, 2006). Workload excess is an imperative that an individual performs more than he / she can do in the normal timeframe and with his talents (Yüksel 2003). One of the leading problems of today's business world is the conflicts between family and work. The fact that the individual's work is intense affects family lives negatively and reduces both his happiness and his family's happiness. Giving importance to the job neglects the family or giving importance to the family results in neglect of the job. Today, as a result of rapid developments in the field of medicine, it is aimed to increase the quality of life of individuals. In line with this goal, there is an increasing effort to measure the quality of life and well-being (Yıldırım & Hacıhasanoğlu, 2011). In measuring health well-being, the concept of quality of life has been developed, which shows the level of the individual's functional status (Testa and Simonson, 1996).
The Theory of Conservation of Resources (COR) is an approach that may be useful in understanding the impact of workload excess on quality of life and work-family conflict levels (Hobfoll, 1989). According to the theory, the resources that are valuable for individuals are categorized in four groups. These resources are: material resources, conditions, personal characteristics and energy (Hobfoll, 1989). According to this theory; individuals strive to obtain, protect and increase the resources they value. Because as the personal characteristics and social conditions of individuals are improved and protected, the aim is to achieve a successful life for them. Environmental conditions often pose a threat to these resources or cause resources to decrease. This threat is important for individuals because of the values of the resources. In other words, the resources that the person struggles to obtain, protect and increase are valuable both because of the features they possess and the opportunity to obtain new resources for the person (Yurur, 2011).
Since life is a whole, it is not possible to consider working and living conditions, therefore, work and quality of life separate. This is due to the close interaction between work and living conditions (Schulze 1998). Health workers are satisfied with their profession as they help people in need of health services, and this satisfaction ensures that the employee experiences job satisfaction. As a result of the employees feeling themselves as part of the workplace, it is possible that they improve positively in performance and work efficiency, with increased job satisfaction.
1.2. RESEARCH PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE
In the professions that directly serve people, the human element has an important place in the quality of the service. Low quality of life is more common in these professions, which are worked face to face with people (Barron, West 2007; Kaçmaz 2005). The low quality of life in healthcare workers, workload density, care given to severe patients, relationship and distribution of duties at work, disturbed sleep patterns, night bouts, and dealing with relatives (French et al., 2000; Kaçmaz 2005). Examining the workload and working conditions of health workers is very important in terms of the quality of life of the employees and the quality of the services provided. It is very important to eliminate the problems related to the working conditions of the employees and to increase their quality of life, in order to increase the quality of the health service provided. For this reason, it is important to carry out studies to evaluate the working conditions and quality of life of healthcare professionals.
The main purpose of the research is to investigate the mediating effect of work-family conflict on the effect of perception of overhead on quality of life. The research also tested whether the demographic information of healthcare workers made any difference in terms of excessive workload, quality of life, and work-family conflict.
1.3. CONTRIBUTION of the ARTICLE to the LITERATURE
There are no studies in the literature that examine the issues of workload excess, quality of life and work-family conflict together. To pioneer the creation of a literature on the subject and to pave the way for further research on the subject in the future. It will benefit the managers in terms of taking measures according to the results obtained by doing such studies in health institutions. Managers will be able to learn about their employees' workload, quality of life, and levels of work-family conflict, and gain insight into factors that will reduce their workload and work-family conflict and improve their quality of life.
2. DESIGN AND METHOD
2.1. RESEARCH TYPE
The study is an empirical study based on valid and reliable data collected on the questionnaire with questionnaire testing and other measurement tools.
2.2. RESEARCH PROBLEMS
The problem of this study is that work perception of workload, quality of life and work-family conflict are balanced in a way to contribute positively to employees in an organization.
2.3. DATA COLLECTION METHOD
In order to investigate the subject, a questionnaire consisting of four parts was conducted. In the first part of the questionnaire, there are questions regarding the demographic information of the participants. In the second part, a questionnaire consisting of workload excess scale, work-family conflict scale and quality of life scale was used.
2.4. QUANTITATIVE / QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
The data obtained in the study were analyzed at 95% confidence level in SPSS 21 package program. In addition, Structural Equation Model (SEM) was analyzed with the Amos 23 package program for the relationship between workload excess, quality of life and work-family conflict scales. The normality test of the scale scores in the study was done with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Since all scales did not show normal distribution (p <0.05), Spearman correlation, Mann Whitney, Kruskal Wallis tests, which are non-parametric test techniques, were used. The relationship between scale scores in the study was analyzed with the Spearman correlation test, and the scale scores differing according to demographic characteristics were analyzed with Mann Whitney and Kruskal Wallis tests.
2.5. RESEARCH MODEL
2.6. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H1: Work-family conflict has a mediating role in the effect of the perception of workload on quality of life.
H2: Perception of workload excess affects quality of life.
H3: Perception of workload excess affects conflict from work to family.
H4: Perception of workload excess affects family to work conflict.
H5: Conflict from work to family affects the quality of life.
H6: Family-to-work conflict affects quality of life.
H7: According to demographic information, the perception of workload overwork varies between work-family conflict and quality of life.
2.7. FINDINGS as a RESULT of ANALYSIS
A reliability study was conducted regarding the scales used in the study. The Cronbach alpha coefficient of the workload excess scale is 0.815; 0,782 of work-family conflict scale; The quality of life scale was calculated as 0.821. The fit indexes obtained as a result of testing the structural equation model show that there is a fit between the model and the data. The results show that the model has achieved adequate adaptation. In this case, it can be said that the work-family conflict has an intermediary role in the effect of overwork on quality of life. According to the results of regression analysis with SEM; the excess of workload positively increases the dimensions of work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict. Work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict significantly reduce quality of life. According to the correlation analysis between variables; there is a positive moderate relationship between workload and work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict. There is a weak negative relationship between workload and quality of life. There is a weak positive relationship between work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict. There is a weak negative relationship between work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict and quality of life.
2.8. HYPOTHESIS TEST RESULTS
H1 hypothesis was accepted.
H2 hypothesis was rejected.
H3 hypothesis was accepted.
H4 hypothesis was accepted.
H5 hypothesis was accepted.
H6 hypothesis was accepted.
The H7 hypothesis has been partially accepted.
3. CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND LIMITATIONS
3.1. RESULTS of the ARTICLE
Workload excess; it significantly increases the dimensions of work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict. Work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict significantly reduce the quality of life. It was determined that the work-family conflict significantly mediated the workload over the impact of the quality of life.
As a result of the analysis made to examine the relationship between workload excess and demographic features; in terms of marital status, there is no statistically significant difference in excess workload. There is a statistically significant difference between age, gender, educational background, working time in the profession and institution, title, weekly working time, and the provincial variables studied. As a result of the analysis made to examine the relationship between work-family conflict and demographic features; in terms of marital status, there is no statistically significant difference in terms of perceptions of work-family conflict. There is a statistically significant difference between age, gender, educational background, working time in the profession and institution, title, weekly working time, and the provincial variables studied. As a result of the analysis to examine the relationship between quality of life and demographic features; there was no difference in the participants' assessment of the quality of life factors in terms of age, gender, marital status, working time in the profession and institution, title and way of working.
3.2. SUGGESTIONS BASED on RESULTS
• Managers should be informed about work-family conflict and supported by various training and courses offered by educational institutions and consulting firms.
• Health institutions should organize activities in order to increase the sharing of experience for employees to deal with work-family conflict experiences and to deal with conflict.
• It should develop policies in a way that will contribute positively to the protection of employees' resources (material resources, conditions, personal characteristics and energy).
• Processes related to doing things should be examined in order to reduce the overload of the employees.
• In units suitable for flexible working, employees should be ensured to try to reach the quality of life they desire by creating flexible working conditions.
3.3. LIMITATIONS of the ARTICLE
Participants in the survey application may have been concerned that the results of the research could be reflected negatively by sharing with the management. Therefore, the possibility of answering questions with some reservations can be considered as the limitation of the study. The fact that the research sample only covers employees in public health institutions and private hospitals are not included in the study restricts the interpretation of the findings throughout the sector. Another limitation is that the study included only the health personnel working in the health institutions affiliated to the Ministry of Health in the city center in the TRB-2 Region.