THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE PERCEPTION ON BUSINESS MOTIVATION IN LOGISTICS SECTOR EMPLOYEES: A MODEL IMPLEMENTATION
1.1. RESEARCH SUBJECT
Logistics are key activities for businesses to survive in today's global competitive environment. In addition, according to other activities carried out in organizations, it is another factor that makes the human factor important in logistics because it is difficult to imitate and in this context, directly affect the competitiveness and strategy of the company (Suvacı and Tonus, 2015: 16-38). Since the logistics sector is a service sector, the workforce comes to the fore. Therefore, in order to carry out logistics activities in the most efficient way, the employee motivation that has the power to mobilize human resources should be high. One of the important factors affecting motivation is believing that they work in a fair business environment (Greenberg, 1990: 399; Moliner et al., 2008: 329).
When the working conditions of the logistics sector in Turkey are analyzed in general, organizational justice problem is faced due to the intense workload and low wages (Tanrıverdi ve Öner, 2019: 42). The lack of previous research on the issue of organizational justice in the logistics industry and the distributional justice problems experienced by the employees compared to other sectors revealed the necessity of research in this topic. The effect of organizational justice perceptions of employees on business motivation is the subject of the research in logistics companies operating in Istanbul that operate in international transportation.
1.2. RESEARCH PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE
Logistics is a sector where multiple business processes are managed, controlled and finalized. Since the main purpose in logistics management is to provide the highest customer satisfaction at the lowest cost, it is necessary to manage multiple processes well and to check continuously to ensure that the processes are completed correctly. At this point, the human factor comes into play. It is crucial because human beings are involved in every stage of logistics activities. Another factor that makes the human factor significant in logistics is that logistics are difficult to imitate compared to other activities carried out in organizations.
The logistics industry is a service industry. Thereby, "human" is a component of a logistics service. The success of the employees in the logistics sector has a significant place in the success of the logistics activities. The research was conducted to investigate the effect of logistics sector’s employees’ organizational justice perception on business motivation. In this context, it was planned that some supportive suggestions were offered in reaching organizational goals for logistics sector’s companies.
1.3. CONTRIBUTION of the ARTICLE to the LITERATURE
In this study, it is revealed how significant organizational justice perception is in terms of motivation of employees and achievement of companies' goals, strategies and targets in logistics sector. Motivation is among the most significant forces to mobilize people and the perception of organizational justice significantly affects motivation of employees in the logistics sector. Moreover, some suggestions were made to companies in the logistics industry to achieve corporate goals.
2. DESIGN AND METHOD
2.1. RESEARCH TYPE and DATA COLLECTION METHOD
This study is an explanatory research. In the study, questionnaire technique was used as a data collection tool and scales for organizational justice and work motivation, whose reliability was tested before, were used. The questionnaire used in the study consists of 3 parts: organizational justice perception, business motivation and demographic features.
2.2. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
In the research, IBM SPSS Statistics 24.0 program, a program used in quantitative analysis, was used to analyze the survey results. Before the analysis and evaluations were made, it was tested for compatibility with normal distribution with One Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and it was determined to have normal distribution feature. In analyses and evaluations; frequency distributions and descriptive statistics of the data, T Test in Independent Groups, One Way ANOVA Test, Bonferroni test for Post Hoc Analysis in One Way ANOVA test, Pearson Correlation Analysis and Regression Analysis were used.
2.3. RESEARCH MODEL
The model created for the research is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Research Model
3. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
185 sector employees were included in the study. When the frequency distributions are analyzed according to the demographic characteristics of the employees, 68.6 percent of the employees are associate degree-undergraduate graduates, 73 percent are males, 49.7 percent are 32-41 years old and 59.5 percent are married. According to the duration of working in the company at the time of the survey, 64.9 percent is between 1-5 years, and according to their working duration in the profession life, it is 5 years and above.
In this research, conducted in logistics companies, organizational justice perception and business motivation do not differ according to the gender, marital status and education levels of the employees. However, it has been observed that employees' perceptions of organizational justice and business motivations vary according to age groups. As age increases, organizational justice perception and business motivation increase. While the organizational justice perceptions of the employees do not differ according to their working duration in the company they are currently working in, it has been observed that their business motivations differ according to their working duration in the company. The business motivation of those who work for 5 years or more in their current company is 0.194 more than those who work for 1-5 years.
There is a moderate relationship between all dimensions of organizational justice and job motivation. The correlation coefficient between 0.3-0.7 is considered as an indicator of a moderate relationship between the two variables (Saruhan ve Özdemirci, 2016: 248; Sipahi ve diğ. 2010: 215). The justice dimension that has the highest level of relationship with business motivation is interactional justice (r=0,624) and the following is distributional justice (r=0,571). The justice dimension that has the lowest level of relationship with work motivation is operational justice (r=0,325).
According to the results of the regression analysis, the perception of organizational justice explains 39.4 percent of the business motivation. When employees' organizational justice perception is increased by 1 unit, their business motivation will increase by 0.394. This relationship between two variables is also statistically significant. There is a positive linear relationship between organizational justice and business motivation.
In the research conducted in the field of higher education by Argon (2010), it was concluded that the motivation of academicians increased as much as the sense of right and justice in the organization was positive. Gillet et al. (2013) showed that working in a fair business environment has a positive effect on the motivation of nurses. According to Sökmen et al. (2013), in the banking sector, it was determined that the belief that employees were treated fairly had a decisive role in fulfilling their duties and had a positive effect on motivation. In the research conducted in the tourism sector by Uysal and Tayfun (2019), it was found that organizational justice perception dimensions have a significant effect on motivation in hotel employees. Employee motivation is an indicator of organizational justice. It is believed that business motivation in the logistics sector is positively influenced by good human relationships with colleagues and superiors, which are indicators of organizational justice, fair solution of problems, and perceptions of improving financial conditions (Ližbetinová vd., 2017: 3). Considering the logistics sector in Turkey’s working conditions, employees are working under more intense workload and lower salary compared to other sectors. It is seen that employees experience problems in organizational justice dimensions (Tanrıverdi ve Öner, 2019: 42).
4. CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND LIMITATIONS
4.1. RESULTS AND SUGGESTIONS
According to the results of the research, organizational justice perception and work motivation increase when the age increases. In this research on the logistics sector, this may be due to the fact that young employees and those with less than five years of work experience have higher expectations from the company and react more to organizational justice and negative motivation.
In order to increase the perception and motivation of employees for organizational justice, managers need to see their employees as human capital and share economic values. Also, the strategies and policies pursued by the management should be fair in order to ensure organizational justice. In addition, the business needs to implement its objectives, values, strategies and policies in an impartial manner.
Since distribution justice has the lowest level in organizational justice dimensions, policies regarding distribution justice should be reviewed. The organizational justice dimension with the lowest average after distribution justice is operational justice. Managers are required to review the procedures and policies implemented to increase employees' perception of justice. It is recommended to increase the perception of organizational justice in order to increase the motivation of the employees.
In future research proposals to be made in this area;
• The results are comparable with businesses in the logistics sector in a different city or comparable with businesses in the logistics sector in a particular geographical region of Turkey.
• A comparison can be made in the logistics sector of Turkey entirely.
• The results can be compared in the logistics sector and in a different sector by using the same scales in both sectors.
• Those who graduate from the logistics departments of universities in logistics sector and those who do not graduate from the logistics departmants in logistics sector can be analyzed separately.
4.2. LIMITATIONS OF THE ARTICLE
The constraint of the study is that the research universe consists of white-collar employees operating in Istanbul, operating internationally and operating in 5 logistics companies with their own vehicle fleet.