The Ottoman Empire classified oil as an underground mine with the mining law of 1868. Oil for the first time was discovered in the Çingen village of Kabaev in İskenderun in 1889. Sultan Abdul hamid II was aware of the oil potential in Mosul and Baghdad, which were described as "the lake of oil" in some sources. Therefore, he took this region under his protection by taking the oil mines of this region into its own private ownership. Oil policies were continued with the concessions granted to foreigners until the Republican period. As in the Chester Project, railway concessions were given to the foreign companies. From the proclamation of republic to the Government of Democrat Party, policy regarding oil also changed and the  state-controlled economic ideas dominated oil policy. In this regard, the first Turkish legal regulation concerning petroleum is the Petroleum Law No. 792 that was adopted in 1926. In addition, “Gold Exploration and Exploitation” and "Mineral Research & Exploration General Directorate" were founded. As a result, it can be said that oil plolicy was based on the  state-controlled economic idea during the Republic period.