Vol. 10 No. 4 (2022): Business & Management Studies: An International Journal

A study of factors influencing consumers’ willingness to purchase functional foods (protein enriched milk): The moderating effect of consumer innovativeness

Res. Asst., Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale; PhD Student, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey
Lecturer, PhD, Sakarya University of Applied Sciences, Sakarya, Turkey
Asst. Prof. Dr., Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey

Published 2022-12-25


  • Fonksiyonel Gıda, Proteini Zenginleştirilmiş Sütler, Tüketici Yenilikçiliği
  • Functional Foods, Protein Enriched Milks, Consumer Innovativeness

How to Cite

İNAL, M., BAŞAK YİĞİT, B., & OKUTAN, S. (2022). A study of factors influencing consumers’ willingness to purchase functional foods (protein enriched milk): The moderating effect of consumer innovativeness. Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, 10(4), 1241–1255. https://doi.org/10.15295/bmij.v10i4.2126


Functional foods are food products that provide new benefits to consumers in addition to nutritional benefits and promote a healthy lifestyle by modifying or enriching the content of various food items. Even though the functional food market is quickly expanding due to its highly dynamic and inventive structure, research on consumer expectations and needs in this subject is still restricted. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to determine the variables that affect consumers' willingness to purchase functional foods, as well as to examine the moderating effect of consumer innovativeness. Protein-enriched milk products were chosen as the functional food category in the study. The descriptive research approach was employed to reveal the variables' relations. The questionnaire form, which was produced as a result of a literature study to determine the suitable variables and scales, was administered to 420 participants living in Turkey between May and August 2021. The participants were selected using a convenience sampling technique. The Smart PLS 3.3.2 software and least squares path analysis (PLS-SEM) was used to assess the research hypothesis. According to the findings, the propensity to live a healthy lifestyle and consumer innovativeness significantly and positively affect various dimensions of functional food purchase willingness. On the other hand, consumer innovativeness appears to have a moderating effect on the relationship between the propensity to live a healthy lifestyle and the trust in functional food sub-dimensions, as well as the relationship between the propensity to live a healthy lifestyle and the need for functional food sub-dimensions.


Download data is not yet available.


  1. Ali, A. & Rahut, D. B. (2019). Healthy foods as a proxy for functional foods: consumers' awareness, perception, and demand for natural functional foods in Pakistan. International Journal of food science,2019,1-13.
  2. Berger, A. M. & Walker, S. N. (1997). Measuring healthy lifestyle. Instruments for clinical health-care research, 373377.
  3. Bloch, P. H. (1984). The wellness movement: imperatives for health care marketers. Journal of Health Care Marketing, 4(1).
  4. Bozoklu, Ç. P. & Yıldız, E. (2019). Bilgi toplama ile reklam şüpheciliği arasındaki ilişki: yetkisiz ikincil bilgi kullanımı ve ürün kalitesinin seri aracılık rolü [The Relationship Between Information Collection and Ad Skepticism: Serial Mediating Role of Unauthorized Secondary Use and Product/ Service Quality]. Journal of Yaşar University, 14, 34-45.
  5. Büyükkaragöz, A., Bas, M., Sağlam, D., & Cengiz, Ş. E. (2014). Consumers' awareness, acceptance and attitudes towards functional foods in Turkey. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 38(6), 628-635.
  6. Chen, M. F. (2009). Attitude toward organic foods among Taiwanese as related to health consciousness, environmental attitudes, and the mediating effects of a healthy lifestyle. British Food Journal, 111, 165–178.
  7. Chen, M. F. (2011). The joint moderating effect of health consciousness and healthy lifestyle on consumers’ willingness to use functional foods in Taiwan. Appetite, 57(1), 253-262.
  8. Chen, K. K. (2014). Assessing the effects of customer innovativeness, environmental value and ecological lifestyles on residential solar power systems install intention. Energy Policy, 67, 951–961.
  9. Cebeci, B. K. & Mankan, E. (2022). Covid-19 pandemi sürecinde tüketicilerin fonksiyonel gıdalara yönelik tutumları [Attitudes of Consumers to Functional Foods During the COVID-19 Pandemic Period]. Journal of Humanities and Tourism Research, 12(2), 405-416.
  10. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for The Behavioral Sciences. NJ: Mahwah, Lawrence Erlbaum.
  11. Cotte, J., & Wood, S. L. (2004). Families and innovative consumer behavior: A triadic analysis of sibling and parental influence. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(1), 78-86.
  12. Dean, M., Lampila, P., Shepherd, R., Arvola, A., Saba, A., Vassallo, M., ... & Lähteenmäki, L. (2012). Perceived relevance and foods with health-related claims. Food Quality and Preference, 24(1), 129-135.
  13. Di Pasquale, J., Adinolfi, F. & Capitanio, F. (2011). Analysis of consumer attitudes and consumers’ willingness to pay for functional foods. International Journal on food system dynamics, 2(2), 181-193.
  14. Divine, R. L. & Lepisto, L. (2005). Analysis of the healthy lifestyle consumer. Journal of Consumer marketing, 22(5), 275-283.
  15. Downes, L. (2008). Motivators and barriers of a healthy lifestyle scale: Development and psychometric characteristics. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 16(1), 3-15.
  16. Frewer, L., Scholderer J. & Lambert N. (2003). Consumer acceptance of functional foods: issues for the future. British Food Journal, 105(10): 714-731.
  17. “Functional foods global market report”. (2022). available at: https://www.thebusinessresearchcompany.com/report/functional-foods-global-market-report. (Accessed 16 May 2022).
  18. Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
  19. Gil, J. M., Gracia, A. & Sanchez, M. (2000). Market segmentation and willingness to pay for organic products in Spain. The International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, 3(2), 207-226.
  20. Gok, I. & Ulu, E. K. (2018). Functional foods in Turkey: marketing, consumer awareness and regulatory aspects. Nutrition & Food Science, 49 (4), 668-686.
  21. Goldsmith, J. & Hofacker, H. (1993). Domain specific innovativeness: DSI. Handbook of Marketing Scales: multi-item measures for marketing and consumer behavior, Sage, 59-60.
  22. Gould, S. J. (1990). Health consciousness and health behavior: the application of a new health consciousness scale. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 6(4), 228-237.
  23. Hair, J. F., William C. B., Barry J. B. & Anderson R. E. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  24. Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M. & Sarstedt, M. (2021). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage publications.
  25. Hair Jr, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., & Kuppelwieser, V. G. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): An emerging tool in business research. European Business Review, 26 (2), 106-121.
  26. Heasman, M. & Mellentin, J. (2001). The functional foods revolution: Healthy people, healthy profits. Routledge.
  27. Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M. & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modelling. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 43(1), 115-135.
  28. Hirschman, E.C. (1980), Innnovativeness, novelty seeking and consumer creativity, Journal of Consumer Research, 7.
  29. Howard, L. R. & Wildman, R. E. (2007). Antioxidant Vitamin and Phytochemical Content of Fresh and Processed Pepper Fruit (Capsicum Annuum). Handbook of nutraceuticals and functional foods, 165-191.
  30. Kaynak, R., & Ekşi, S. (2014). Effects of personality, environmental and health consciousness on understanding the anti-consumptional attitudes. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 114, 771-776.
  31. Karaduman Y. (2011). Fonskiyonel gıdalar [Functional foods]. Uluslararası Katılımlı Ali Numan Kıraç Tarım Kongresi ve Fuarı, 27-30 Nisan, Eskişehir.
  32. Küster-Boluda, I. & Vidal-Capilla, I. (2017). Consumer attitudes in the election of functional foods. Spanish Journal of Marketing-ESIC, 21, 65-79.
  33. Macaluso, M., Bianchi, A., Sanmartin, C., Taglieri, I., Venturi, F., Testai, L. & Zinnai, A. (2020). By-products from winemaking and olive mill value chains for the enrichment of refined olive oil: Technological challenges and nutraceutical features. Foods, 9, 1390.
  34. Menrad, K. (2003). Market and marketing of functional food in Europe. Journal of Food Engineering, 56(2-3), 181-188.
  35. Michaelidou, N. & Hassan, L. M. (2008). The role of health consciousness, food safety concern and ethical identity on attitudes and intentions towards organic food. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 32(2), 163-170.
  36. Midgley, D. F., & Dowling, G. R. (1978). Innovativeness: The concept and its measurement. Journal of Consumer Research, 4(4), 229-242.
  37. Newsom, J. T., McFarland, B. H., Kaplan, M. S., Huguet, N., & Zani, B. (2005). The health consciousness myth: implications of the near independence of major health behaviors in the North American population. Social Science & Medicine, 60(2), 433-437.
  38. Niva, M. (2007). ‘All foods affect health’: Understandings of functional foods and healthy eating among health-oriented Finns. Appetite, 48(3), 384-393.
  39. Özkan, P., Yücel, E. K., & Yücel, E. (2018). Tüketici yenilikçiliği ile fonksiyonel gıdalara yönelik tutum arasındaki ilişki: üniversite öğrencileri üzerine bir uygulama [The relationship between consumer innovativeness and attitudes toward functional food: an application on university students]. International Journal of Economic and Administrative Studies, 265-280.
  40. Plasek, B., Lakner, Z., Kasza, G. &Temesi, Á. (2020). Consumer evaluation of the role of functional food products in disease prevention and the characteristics of target groups. Nutrients, 12(1), 69.
  41. Rajasekaran, A. & Kalaivani, M. (2013). Designer foods and their benefits: A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 50, 1–16.
  42. Roberfroid, M. B. (2002). Global view on functional foods: European perspectives. British Journal of Nutrition, 88(2), 133-138.
  43. Rogers, E. M., & Shoemaker, F. F. (1971). Communication of Innovations; A Cross-Cultural Approach.
  44. Saher, M., Arvola, A., Lindeman, M. & Lähteenmäki, L. (2004). Impressions of functional food consumers. Appetite, 42(1), 79-89.
  45. Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C.M. & Hair, J.F. (2017). Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling, In C. Homburg, M. Klarmann, A.Vomberg (Eds.), Handbook of Market Research, Heidelberg: Springer.
  46. Schifferstein, H. N., & Ophuis, P. A. O. (1998). Health-related determinants of organic food consumption in the Netherlands. Food quality and Preference, 9(3), 119-133.
  47. Shortt, C. & O’Brien, J. (2004). Handbook of functional dairy products, CRC Press.
  48. Siro, I., Kápolna, E., Kápolna, B. & Lugasi, A. (2008). Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptance—A review. Appetite, 51(3), 456-467.
  49. Steenkamp, J. B., Hofstede F. & Wedel M. (1999). A cross-national investigation into the individual cultural antecedents of consumer innovativeness. Journal of Marketing, 63 (2): 55–69.
  50. Urala, N. & Lähteenmäki, L. (2003). Reasons behind consumers’ functional food choices. Nutrition & Food Science, 33(4), 148-158.
  51. Urala, N. & Lähteenmäki, L. (2007). Consumers’ changing attitudes towards functional foods. Food Quality and Preference, 18(1), 1-12.
  52. Verbeke, W. (2005). Consumer acceptance of functional foods: socio-demographic, cognitive and attitudinal determinants. Food quality and preference, 16(1), 45-57.
  53. Williams, C. M. & Gibson, G. R. (2000). Functional Foods: Concept to Product. Woodhead pub.
  54. “Z raporu”, (2021). available at: https://www.gzt.com/z-raporu/pandemi-fonksiyonel-gidalara-yaradi-3648201. (Accessed 16 May 2022).