Vol. 9 No. 4 (2021): Business & Management Studies: An International Journal
Articles

The relationships among charismatic leadership, job satisfaction, and entrepreneurial orientation: An empirical study in the R&D department

Dilek Karaca
Assist. Prof., İstanbul Rumeli University, İstanbul, Turkey
Burcu Özgül
Assist. Prof., İstanbul Ayvansaray University, İstanbul, Turkey
Cemal Zehir
Prof. Dr., Yıldız Technical University, İstanbul, Turkey

Published 2021-12-25

How to Cite

Karaca, D., Özgül, B., & Zehir, C. (2021). The relationships among charismatic leadership, job satisfaction, and entrepreneurial orientation: An empirical study in the R&D department. Business &Amp; Management Studies: An International Journal, 9(4), 1521–1537. https://doi.org/10.15295/bmij.v9i4.1944

Abstract

In the context of social learning theory, this study aims to determine how the charismatic leadership of managers affects the entrepreneurial orientation of R&D employees and whether job satisfaction has any mediating effect in this relationship. In this context, data were collected through questionnaire method from 392 employees working in the R&D departments of the companies operating in the manufacturing industry, which are included in the Top 500 Industrial Enterprises List of Turkey. The data were analyzed with the SPSS 22.0 package program. As a result of the analyses, it was found out that the managers’ charismatic leadership behaviours affect job satisfaction and entrepreneurship orientation of the R&D employees. Furthermore, the job satisfaction of the R&D employees has a partial mediating effect in the relationship between charismatic leadership and entrepreneurial leadership orientation. These findings show that organizations will increase their entrepreneurial exposure by influencing the job satisfaction of their employees with a charismatic leadership approach.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

  1. Adiguzel, Z., & Sonmez Cakir, F. (2020, Sept./Dec.). Role of diversity management and charismatic leadership on innovation and performance in the globalized era. International Journal of Innovation - IJI, São Paulo, 8(3), 489-515.
  2. Ahmed, S. N., Rehman, A., & Amjad, M. (2013). Job satisfaction and intrapreneurship: The moderating effect of personality trait. Journal of International Studies, 6(1). 87-95
  3. Aloulou, W., & Fayolle, A. 2005. A Conceptual Approach of Entrepreneurship Orientation Within Small Business Context, Journal of Enterprising Culture, 13 (1), 21- 45.
  4. Antoncic J.A. & Antoncic B. (2011). Employee satisfaction intrapreneurship and firm: A model. Industrial Management&Data Systems, 111(4), 589- 607.
  5. Bagozzi. R. P. (1980). Performance and satisfaction in an industrial sales force: An examination of their antecedents and simultaneity. Journal of Marketing, 44, 65-77.
  6. Bandura, Albert. 1999. ‘Social Cognitive Theory: An Agentic Perspective’. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 2 (1): 21–41.
  7. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of personality and social psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.
  8. Basadur, M. (2004). Leading others to think innovatively together: Creative leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(1), 103-121.
  9. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press
  10. Blanc, Le, P. M., González-Romá, V. & Wang, H. (2021). Charismatic leadership and work team innovative behaviour: The role of team task interdependence and team potency. Journal of Business and Psychology, 36(2), 333-346.
  11. Cameron, Kim S., Robert E. Quinn. (2006). Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture. 3th. Edt. Addison-Wesley.
  12. Carrier, C. (1996). Intrapreneurship in Small Businesses: An Exploratory Study, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 21 (1), 5-20.
  13. Chen, C. F. (2006). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and flight attendants’ turnover intentions: A note. Journal of Air Transport Management, 12(5), 274-276.
  14. Chen, X. P., Eberly, M. B., Chiang, T. J., Farh, J. L., & Cheng, B. S. (2014). Affective trust in Chinese leaders: Linking paternalistic leadership to employee performance. Journal of management, 40(3), 796-819.
  15. Cicero, L., & Pierro, A. (2007). Charismatic leadership and organizational outcomes: the mediating role of employees’ work-group identification. International Journal of Psychology, 42(5), 297–306.
  16. Cinar, B., Akgul, G., & Korkmaz, E. (2018). The effect of charismatic leader on employee motivation: A research in the mining industry. Turkish Journal of Marketing, 3(2), 143-165.
  17. Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1987). Toward a behavioural theory of charismatic leadership in organizational settings. Academy of management review, 12(4), 637-647.
  18. Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1992). Perceived behavioural attributes of charismatic leadership. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 24(1), 86.
  19. Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1998). Charismatic Leadership in Organizations, Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  20. Covin, J. G. & Slevin, D. P. 1991. A Conceptual Model of Entrepreneurship as Firm Behaviour. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16, 7-25.
  21. Eisenberger, R., Armeli, S., Rexwinkel, B., Lynch, P. D., & Rhoades, L. (2001). Reciprocation of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 42.
  22. Felix, C., Aparicio, S., & Urbano, D. (2019). Leadership as a driver of entrepreneurship: an international exploratory study. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development. 26(3), 397-420.
  23. Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. Sage publications.
  24. Fry, A. (1987). The post-it note: An intrapreneurial success. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 52(3), 4-9.
  25. Gebert, D., Heinitz, K. & Buengeler, C. (2016). Leaders' charismatic leadership and followers' commitment — The moderating dynamics of value erosion at the societal level. The Leadership Quarterly, 27, 98-108.
  26. Greenhalg Christine & Mark Rogers. (2010). Innovation, Intellectual Property and Economic Growth. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  27. Gul, H. (2003). A research on the relationship between charismatic leadership and organizational commitment, Gebze Institute of Technology, Graduate School of Social Sciences, Gebze, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis.
  28. Gurbuz, S., Bekmezci, M., & Mert, İ. S. (2010). The effect of organizational factors on internal entrepreneurship: Is the job satisfaction a mediating variable? Journal of Organization and Management Sciences, 2(2), 127-135.
  29. Hair, J. F. J., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis, Seventh Edition Prentice Hall.
  30. Hater, J. J., & Bass, B. M. (1988). Supervisor’s evaluations and subordinates’ perceptions of transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 695–702
  31. Heinonen, J. & Korvela, K. (2003). How about measuring intrapreneurship?. In Conference Proceedings of 33rd EISB (Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Small Business). Conference in Milan, Italy
  32. Hemmen, S. V., Urbano, D., & Alvarez, C. (2013). Charismatic leadership and entrepreneurial activity: An empirical analysis. Innovar, 23(50), 53-65.
  33. Hodgetts, R. M., & Kuratko, D. F. (2004). Entrepreneurship; Theory, Process and Practice.
  34. Holloway, K. (2012). An Examination of The Relationship Between Charismatic Leadership and Job Satisfaction, PhD Thesis, Capella University, Minneapolis.
  35. Holt, D. T., Rutherford, M. W., & Clohessy, G. R. (2007). Corporate entrepreneurship: An empirical look at individual characteristics, context, and process. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 13(4), 40-54.
  36. Hornsby, J. S., Kuratko, D. F., & Montagno, R. V. (1999). Perception of internal factors for corporate entrepreneurship: A comparison of Canadian and US managers. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 24(2), 9-24.
  37. House, R. J. & J. M. Howell (1992). Personality and Charismatic Leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 3(2), 81-108.
  38. House, R. J. (1999). Weber and the neo-charismatic leadership paradigm: A response to Beyer. The Leadership Quarterly, 10, 563–574.
  39. House, R.J., Spangler, W.D. & Woycke, J. (1991). Personality and charisma in the US presidency: a psychological theory of leader effectiveness, Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(3), 364-396.
  40. Hu, H., Liu, Y., & Yan, B. (2015). Charismatic leadership and creativity: An empirical investigation in China. International Conference on Social Science, Education Management and Sports Education (SSEMSE 2015), 739-742.
  41. Hughes, R. L., Ginnett, R. C., & Curphy, G. R. (1993). What is leadership? In J. T. Wren (Ed.), The leader companion: Insights on leadership through the ages (pp. 39-43). New York The Free Press
  42. Hwang, S. J., Quast, L. N., Center, B. A., Chung, C. T. N., Hahn, H. J., & Wohkittel, J. (2015). The impact of leadership behaviours on leaders’ perceived job performance across cultures: Comparing the role of charismatic, directive, participative, and supportive leadership behaviours in the US and four Confucian Asian countries. Human Resource Development International, 18(3), 259-277.
  43. Jaussi, K.S. & Dionne, S.D. (2003). Leading for creativity: The role of unconventional leader behaviour. Leadership Quarterly, 14(4/5), 475-98.
  44. Kanten, P. & Kanten, S. (2016). The light and dark side of behaviour in organizations. Nobel Academic Publication.
  45. Kirkpatrick, S. A., & Locke, E. A. (1996). Direct and indirect effects of three core charismatic leadership components on performance and attitudes. Journal of applied psychology, 81(1), 36-51.
  46. Kon, W. L., Steers, R. M. & Terborg, J. R. (1995). The effects of transformational leadership on teacher attitude and student performance in Singapore. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 16, 319–333.
  47. Kuratko, D. F., Montagno, R. V. & Hornsby, J. S. (1990). Developing an intrapreneurial assessment instrument for an effective corporate entrepreneurial environment. Strategic management journal, 49-58.
  48. Kuratko, D.F., Hornsby, J.S. & Bishop, J.W. (2005). An examination of managers’ entrepreneurial actions and job satisfaction. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1(3), 275–291.
  49. Levay, C. (2010). Charismatic leadership in resistance to change. The leadership quarterly, 21(1), 127-143.
  50. Lok, P. & J. Crawford. (2004). The Effect of Organizational Culture and Leadership Style on Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: A Cross-National Comparison. Journal of Management Development, 23(4), 321–38.
  51. Lu, H., While, A. & Barriball, L. (2005). Job satisfaction among nurses: a literature review. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 42, 211-227.
  52. Lumpkin, G. T. & Dess, G. G. (1996). “Clarifying the Entrepreneurial Orientation Construct and Linking it to Performance”. Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 135-172.
  53. Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W.B. & Leiter, M.P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397-422.
  54. Meydan, C. H. (2011). The effect of job satisfaction and self-efficacy on intra-organizational entrepreneurship: A research in the public sector. Çukurova University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 20(1), 25-40.
  55. Michaelis, B., Stegmaier, R. & Sonntag, K. (2009). Affective commitment to change and innovation implementation behaviour: The role of charismatic leadership and employees’ trust in top management. Journal of Change Management, 9(4), 399-417.
  56. Morris, M.H., Kuratko, D.F. & Covin, J.G. (2008). Corporate Entrepreneurship and Innovation: Entrepreneurial Development within Organizations. Ohio: Thomson South-Western.
  57. Mumford, M. D., Antes, A. L., Caughron, J. J. & Friedrich, T. L. (2008). Charismatic, Ideological, and Pragmatic Leadership: Multi-Level Influences on Emergence and Performance, The Leadership Quarterly, 19(2), 144–160.
  58. Murphy, S. E. & Ensher, E. A. (2008). A qualitative analysis of charismatic leadership in creative teams: The case of television directors. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(3), 335-352.
  59. Paulsen, N., Maldonado, D., Callan, V. J. & Ayoko, O. (2009). Charismatic leadership, change and innovation in an R&D organization. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 22(5), 511-523.
  60. Pittaway, L. (2001). Corporate enterprise: a new reality for hospitality organisations? International Journal of Hospitality Management, 20(4), 379-393.
  61. Rauch, A., Wiklund, J., Lumpkin, G.T. & Frese, M. (2009). Entrepreneurial Orientation and Business Performance: An Assessment of Past Research and Suggestions for The Future Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 33 (3), 761-787.
  62. Robbins, S. P. & Judge, T. A. (2013). Organizational behaviour (Vol. 4). New Jersey: Pearson Education.
  63. Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology. 21(7), 600-619.
  64. Schwepker Jr, C. H. (2001). Ethical climate's relationship to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention in the salesforce. Journal of business research, 54(1), 39-52.
  65. Shamir, B., House, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1993). The motivational effects of charismatic leadership: A self-concept based theory. Organization science, 4(4), 577-594.
  66. Shastri, R.K., Shashi Mishra, K. & Sinha, A. (2013). Charismatic leadership and organizational commitment: An Indian perspective. Global Journal of Business Management, 7(4), 1-8.
  67. Soomro, B. A., & Shah, N. (2019). Determining the impact of entrepreneurial orientation and organizational culture on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and employee’s performance. South Asian Journal of Business Studies, 8(3), 266-282.
  68. Sosik, J. (2005). ‘The Role of Personal Values in the Charismatic Leadership of Corporate Managers: A Model and Preliminary Field Study’, Leadership Quarterly, 16, 221–244.
  69. Stephan, U. & Pathak, S. (2016). Beyond cultural values? Cultural leadership ideals and entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 31(5), 505-523.
  70. Stevenson, H.H. & Jarillo, J.C. 1990. A paradigm of entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial management. Strategic Management Journal, 11, 17-27.
  71. Stocker, J.I., Looise, J.C., Fissher, O.A.M. & De Jong, R.D. (2001), “Leadership and innovation: relations between leadership, individual characteristics and the functioning of R&D teams”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12 (7),1141-51.
  72. Vlachos, P. A., Panagopoulos, N. G., & Rapp, A. A. (2013). Feeling good by doing good: Employee CSR-induced attributions, job satisfaction, and the role of charismatic leadership. Journal of business ethics, 118(3), 577-588.
  73. Vuran, Y. (2019). The Mediator Role of Leader-Follower Interaction and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour in the Effect of Charismatic Leadership on Job Satisfaction. PhD Thesis, Hasan Kalyoncu University. https://doi.org/10.17240/aibuefd.2018.18.39 790-471190.
  74. Weiss, H.M. (2002). Deconstructing Job Satisfaction: Separating Evaluations, Beliefs and Affective Experiences. Human Resource Management Review, 12(2), 173-194.
  75. Wiklund, J., Dean S. 2005. Entrepreneurial Orientation and Small Business Performance: A Configurational Approach. Journal of Business Venturing, 20, 71-91.
  76. Wood, C. C., Holt, D. T., Reed, T. S., & Hudgens, B. J. (2008). Perceptions of corporate entrepreneurship in air force organizations: antecedents and outcomes. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 21(1), 117-131.
  77. Yavan, A., Sokmen, A. & Bıyık, Y. (2018). The effect of charismatic leadership and organizational identification on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Journal of Business Studies, 10 (1), 898-913.
  78. Zahra, S. A. (1991). Predictors and financial outcomes of corporate entrepreneurship: An exploratory study. Journal of business venturing, 6(4), 259-285.
  79. Zbierowski, P. (2016). Positive leadership and corporate entrepreneurship: theoretical considerations and research propositions. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 4(3), 73-84.
  80. Zehir, C., Elçi, M. & Savi, F. Z. (2003). Ethical Climate’s Relationship to Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment And Turnover Intention. In Ethics 2003 Business and Professional Ethics Conference Proceeding, Hacettepe University, Ankara.
  81. Zehir, C., Karakadilar, I. S., Gogus, G., & Basar, D. (2019). How the Managerial Environment Effects on Corporate Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Turkey. Journal of Business Ethics, 12(1), 1-26.
  82. Zhao, C., Tian, G., Wen, Z., & Gao, X. (2021). Charismatic leadership and millennial employee innovation performance relationship mediated by employees’ leadership, professional, and organizational identification. Social Behaviour and Personality: An international journal, 49(1), 9643.