Vol. 9 No. 2 (2021): Business & Management Studies: An International Journal
Articles

The meditating effect of brand love in the relationship between brand experience and brand equity

Emre Akgözlü
Lecturer, PhD, Hitit University
Sabiha Kılıç
Prof. Dr., Hitit University

Published 2021-06-25

Keywords

  • Marka, Marka Aşkı, Marka Deneyimi, Marka Değeri
  • Brand, Brand Love, Brand Experience, Brand Equity

How to Cite

Akgözlü, E., & Kılıç, S. . (2021). The meditating effect of brand love in the relationship between brand experience and brand equity. Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, 9(2), 625-648. https://doi.org/10.15295/bmij.v9i2.1809

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to examine whether brand love has a mediating effect on the relationship between brand experience and brand equity. The research data were obtained from 503 participants between the ages of 18-24 in Istanbul. Face-to-face survey technique was used as a data collection method, quota sampling and convenience sampling methods were preferred as the sampling method. The collected data were tested using exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling analysis within the framework of the conceptual model of the research. According to the findings of the research, it has been determined that four dimensions of brand experience (sensory, emotional, intellectual and behavioral) have a positive effect on two dimensions of brand love (affection, passion) and four dimensions of brand equity (brand awareness, brand associations, perceived quality, brand loyalty). However, it was concluded that brand love has no mediating effect on the relationship between brand experience and brand equity.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

  1. Aaker, D. A. (1991). Managing Brand Equity: Capitalising on the Value of a Brand Name, New York: The Free Press.
  2. Aboutalebi, S. S., & Kouloubandi, A. (2016). The impact of the brand experience on Purchase Intentions (Case study West and Central branches of Tejarat Bank), International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies, 1415-1424.
  3. Ahuvia, A.C. (1993). I love it! towards a unifying theory of love across diverse love objects, (PhD. Thesis), Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.
  4. Akın, M. (2017). The Effects of Young Consumers’ Love for Smart Mobıle Phone Brands on Brand Loyalty, International review of management and business research, 6(1), 362-370.
  5. Albert, N., Merunka, D., & Valette-Florence, P. (2009). "The Feeling of Love Toward a Brand: Concept and Measurement", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 36, eds. Ann L. McGill and Sharon Shavitt, Duluth, MN: Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 300-307.
  6. Albert, N., & Valette-Florence, P. (2010). Measuring the Love Feeling for a Brand Using Interpersonal Love Items, Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness, 5(1), 57-63.
  7. Albert, N., Merunka, D., & Valette-Florence, P. (2013). Brand passion: Antecedents and consequences, Journal of Business Research, 66(7), 904–909.
  8. Andreini, D., Pedeliento, G., Zarantonello, L. ve Solerio, C. (2019). A renaissance of brand experience: Advancing the concept through a multi-perspective analysis, Journal of Business Research, 96, 355-365.
  9. Anderson, J. C. & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach, Psychological bulletin, 103(3), 411-423.
  10. Aktuğlu, I. K. (2014). Marka Yönetimi, 5. Baskı, İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  11. Altaf, M., Iqbal, N., Mohd. Mokhtar, S. S., & Sial, M. H. (2017). Managing consumer-based brand equity through brand experience in Islamic banking, Journal of Islamic Marketing, 8(2), 218-242.
  12. Aşkın, N. & İpek, İ. (2016). Marka Aşkının Marka Deneyimi ile Marka Sadakati Arasındaki İlişkiye Aracılık Etkisi, Ege Akademik Bakış, 16 (1), 79–94.
  13. A-Qader, I. K., Omar, A. B. & Rubel, M. R. B. (2017). The Influence of Affective Brand Experience Dimension on Brand Equity of the Smartphone Millennial Users in Malaysia, Management, 5(1), 25-37.
  14. Awang, Z. (2012). Structural Equation Modeling Using AMOS Graphic. Malaysia: Penerbit Universiti Teknologi MARA.
  15. Avcılar, M. (2010), Tüketici Temelli Perakende Değerinin Ölçümü: Adana İlinde Bir Araştırma, (Doktora Tezi), Niğde: Niğde Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  16. Aytaç, M., & Öngen, B. (2012). Doğrulayıcı faktör analizi ile yeni çevresel paradigma ölçeğinin yapı geçerliliğinin incelenmesi. İstatistikçiler Dergisi: İstatistik ve Aktüerya, 5(1), 14-22.
  17. Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models, Journal of the academy of marketing science, 16(1), 74-94.
  18. Baron, R.M., & Kenny, D.A. (1986). The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51 (6): 1173-1182.
  19. Batı, U. (2015). Marka Yönetimi-Vazgeçme Çağında Yüksek Sadakat Markaları Yaratmak, 1. Baskı, İstanbul: Alfa.
  20. Başer İ.U. (2011). Tüketicilerin Marka Deneyimi Algısının Marka Güveni, Tatmini Sadakati Üzerindeki Ettkisi ve Bir Araştırma, (Doktora Tezi). İstanbul: Marmara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  21. Batra, R. Ahuvia, A., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2012). Brand Love, Journal of Marketing, 76(2), 1–16.
  22. Baycur, G. (2015). The Relationship of Lovemarks with Brand Experience and Brand Equity, (Yüksek Lisans Tezi), İzmir: Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  23. Beig, F. A., & Khan, M. F. (2018). Impact of social media marketing on brand experience: A study of select apparel brands on Facebook. Vision, 22(3), 264-275.
  24. Beig, F. A., & Nika, F. A. (2019). Brand Experience and Brand Equity, Vision, 23(4), 410–417.
  25. Bıçakcıoğlu, N., İpek, İ., & Bayraktaroğlu, G. (2018). Antecedents and outcomes of brand love: the mediating role of brand loyalty, Journal of Marketing Communications, 24(8), 863-877.
  26. Borça, G. (2003). Bu Topraklardan Dünya Markası Çıkar mı? İstanbul: MediaCat Kitapları.
  27. Brown, T. J. Churchill, G. A., & Peter, J. P. (1993). Improving the measurement of service quality, Journal of Retailing, 69(1), 127–139.
  28. Brakus, J. J. Schmitt, B. H., & Zarantonello, L. (2009). Brand experience: What is it? How is it measured? Does it affect loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 73(3), 52-68.
  29. Brew, A. (2017). The Total Brand Experience, https://www.brandingbusiness.com/media/34494/bb_onesheet_layout_alanbrew.pdf, (Date of Access: 25.06.2018).
  30. Bush, A. J. Martin, C. A. ve Bush, V. D. (2004). Sports celebrity influence on the behavioral intentions of generation Y, Journal of advertising research, 44(1), 108-118.
  31. Carroll, B. A., & Ahuvia, A. C. (2006). Some Antecedents and Outcomes of Brand Love., Marketing Letters, 17(2), 79-89.
  32. Ceritoğlu, A. B. (2004). Genç Tüketicilerde Marka Bilincinin Oluşması ve Marka Sadakati Kavramlarının İncelenmesi ve Konu İle İlgili Bir Uygulama, (Doktora Tezi), İstanbul: Marmara Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  33. Chen, L. S. L. (2012). What drives cybershop Brand equity? An empirical evaluation of online shopping system benefit with Brand experience, International Journal of Business and Information, 7(1), 81-104.
  34. Cleff, T., Lin, I. C., & Walter, N. (2014). Can You Feel It?-The Effect of Brand Experience on Brand Equity, IUP Journal of Brand Management, 11(2).7-27.
  35. Çiçek, E.U. (2010). Tanımlayıcı İstatistikler, SPSS Uygulamalı Çok Değişkenli İstatistik Teknikleri, Edit. Şeref Kalaycı. Ankara: Asil Yayın Dağıtım, s.51-61.
  36. Çokluk, Ö. Şekercioğlu, G., & Büyüköztürk Ş. (2014), Sosyal Bilimler İçin Çok Değişkenli İstatistik: SPSS ve Lisrel Uygulamaları, 3. Baskı, Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
  37. de Oliveira Santini, F., Ladeira, W. J., Sampaio, C. H., & Pinto, D. C. (2018). The brand experience extended model: a meta-analysis, Journal of Brand Management, 25(6), 519-535.
  38. Dalla Pozza, I. (2014). Customer experiences as drivers of customer satisfaction, Gestion 2000, 31(3), 115-138.
  39. Demirer, Ö. (2010). İleri Ürteim Tekonolojileri, Rekabet Öncelikleri Ve Firma Performansı Arasındaki İlişkiler Üzerine Amprik Bir İnceleme, (Doktora Tezi), Niğde: Niğde Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  40. Dirsehan, T. (2012). Müşteri Deneyimi Tasarımı ve Yönetimi, 1. Baskı, İstanbul: Hiperlink Yayınları.
  41. Ding, C. G., & Tseng, T. H. (2015). On the relationships among brand experience, hedonic emotions, and brand equity, European Journal of Marketing, 49(7/8), 994-1015.
  42. Drennan, J., Bianchi, C., Cacho-Elizondo, S., Louriero, S., Guibert, N., & Proud, W. (2015). Examining the role of wine brand love on brand loyalty: A multi-country comparison, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 49, 47–55.
  43. Erdem, T., Keane M.P., & Sun B.H. (2008). A dynamic model of brand choice when price and advertising signal product quality, Marketing Science, 27(6), 1111-1125.
  44. Erdem, T. (2019). Markaların Hikayesi Olmalı, Platin Dergisi, Şubat, Yıl 21, 34-36.
  45. Erdoğan, H.H., & Enginkaya, E. (2018). Marka Deneyimi ve Marka Aşkı Açısından Havayolu Markalarının Karşılaştırılması, 23. Pazarlama Kongresi Bildiriler Kitabı, 27-29 Haziran Kocaeli, 403-427.
  46. Esteban, A. A., Ballester, M. E. D., & Muñoz, J. P. (2014). ¿Quién ama a las marcas? Determinantes personales y de consumo. Revista Española de Investigación de Marketing ESIC, 18(1), 2-16.
  47. Fetscherin, M., Boulanger, M., Gonçalves Filho, C., & Quiroga Souki, G. (2014). The effect of product category on consumer brand relationships, Journal of Product & Brand Management, 23(2), 78-89.
  48. Filho, C. G., Monteiro, P. R. R., & Souki, G. Q. (2010). The Impacts of Brand Love, Brand Equity in the Consumer’s Loyalty and the Customer’s Purchase Intentions: The Development and Testing of Alternative Models in the Automotive Sector. XXXIV Encontro da ANPAD, Rio de Janeiro, http://www.anpad.org.br/admin/pdf/mkt1399.pdf, (Date of Access: 25.02.2018).
  49. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error, Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.
  50. Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: Developing relationship theory in consumer research, Journal of consumer research, 24(4), 343-373.
  51. Fournier, S., & Mick, D. G. (1999). Rediscovering Satisfaction, Journal of Marketing, 63(4), 5–23.
  52. Garg, R., Mukherjee, J., Biswas, S., & Kataria, A. (2015). An investigation of antecedents and consequences of brand love in India, Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, 7(3), 174-196.
  53. Garg, R., Mukherjee, J., Biswas, S., & Kataria, A. (2016). An investigation into the concept of brand love and its proximal and distal covariates, Journal of Relationship Marketing, 15(3), 135-153.
  54. Giovanis, A., & Athanasopoulou, P. (2018). Understanding lovemark brands: Dimensions and effect on Brand loyalty in high-technology products, Spanish Journal of Marketing-ESIC, 22(3), 272-294.
  55. Gómez, M. C. O., & Pérez, W. G. (2018). Effects of Brand Love and Brand Equity on Repurchase Intentions of Young Consumers, International Review of Management and Marketing, 8(4), 7-13.
  56. Gümüş, F. B., & Şerit, K. (2015). Kasko Sigortası Edinme ile Bireylerin Kaygı Düzeyleri mi Yoksa Demografik Özellikleri mi ilişkilidir? Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 15(1), 111-142.
  57. Gürbüz, S., & Şahin, F. (2015). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri Felsefe Yöntem Analiz. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  58. Halilovic, D. (2013). Crazy Little Thing Called Brand Love! Exploring the Influence of Brand Love on Brand Equity, (Master's Thesis), Twente: University of Twente.
  59. Hamzah, Z. L., Alwi, S. F. S., & Othman, M. N. (2014). Designing corporate brand experience in an online context: A qualitative insight, Journal of Business Research, 67(11), 2299-2310.
  60. Hair, J., Black, B., Babin, B. ve Anderson, R. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis, 7th ed., Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  61. Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a Silver Bullet, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139-152.
  62. Hsieh, M.H. (2004). Measuring Global Brand Equity Using Cross-National Survey Data, Journal of International Marketing, 12 (2), 28–57.
  63. Huang, C. C. (2017). The impacts of brand experiences on brand loyalty: mediators of brand love and trust, Management Decision, 55(5), 915-934.
  64. Hussein, A. S. (2018). Effects of brand experience on brand loyalty in Indonesian casual dining restaurant: Roles of customer satisfaction and brand of origin, Tourism and hospitality management, 24(1), 119-132.
  65. Hultén, B. (2011). Sensory marketing: the multi-sensory brand-experience concept. European Business Review, 23(3), 256-273.
  66. Japutra, A., & Molinillo, S. (2017). Responsible and active brand personality: On the relationships with brand experience and key relationship constructs, Journal of Business Research. 1-8.
  67. Joshi, R., & Yadav, R. (2018). Exploring the Mediating Effect of Parent Brand Reputation on Brand Equity, Paradigm, 22(2), 1-18.
  68. Joshi, R., & Garg, P. (2021). Role of brand experience in shaping brand love. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 45(2), 259-272.
  69. Jouzaryan, F., Dehbini, N., & Shekar, A. (2015). The Impact Of Brand Personality, Brand Trust, Brand Love And Brand Experience On Consumer Brand Loyalty. International Journal Of Review In Life Sciences, 5(10), 69-76.
  70. Kalaycı, Ş. (2010). SPSS Uygulamalı Çok Değişkenli İstatistik Teknikleri. Edit. Şeref Kalaycı, Faktör Analizi, 321-331, 5. Baskı: Ankara: Asil Yayın Dağıtım.
  71. Kamat, V., & Parulekar, A. (2007). Brand Love— The Precursor to Loyalty, in Advertising and Consumer Psychology: New Frontiers in Branding; Attitudes, Attachments, Relationships, ed. Joseph R. Priester, Deborah J. MacInnis ve C. Whan Park, Santa Monica, CA: Society for Consumer Psychology, 94–98.
  72. Kamiloğlu, F. (2017). Gençlik, Aşk ve Markalar: Aşkın Marka Hali Araştırması, The Brand Age Dergisi, Şubat, Sayı: 97, 38-50.
  73. Kang, A. (2015). Brand love–moving beyond loyalty an empirical investigation of perceived brand love of Indian consumer. Arab Economic and Business Journal, 10(2), 90-101.
  74. Khan, I., & Rahman, Z. (2015). Brand experience formation mechanism and its possible outcomes: a theoretical framework, The Marketing Review, 15(2), 239-259.
  75. Karagöz, Y. (2016). SPSS ve AMOS 23 Uygulamalı İstatistiksel Analizler, 1. Basım, Ankara: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık.
  76. Karjaluoto, H., Munnukka, J., & Kiuru, K. (2016). Brand love and positive word of mouth: the moderating effects of experience and price, Journal of Product & Brand Management, 25(6), 527-537.
  77. Kaya, A. (2018). Kariyer Gelişim Sürecinin Örgütsel Bağlılık Ve İşten Ayrılma Niyeti Üzerine Etkisinin Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesi İle Test Edilmesi, (Doktora Tezi), Çorum: Hitit Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  78. Keh, H. T., Pang, J., & Peng, S. (2007). Understanding and measuring brand love. In J. R. Priester, D. J. MacInnis, & C. W. Park (Eds.), Advertising and consumer psychology: New Frontiers in branding: Attitudes, attachments, relationships (84–88). Santa Monica, CA: Society for Consumer Psychology.
  79. Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, Measuring, Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity, Journal of Marketing, 57 (1), 1–22.
  80. Kimpakorn, N., & Tocquer, G. (2010). Service Brand Equity and Employee Brand Commitment, Journal of Services Marketing, 24 (5), 378-388.
  81. Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling (Third Edition). New York: The Gouilford Pess.
  82. Kumar, R. S., Dash, S., & Purwar, P. C. (2013). The nature and antecedents of brand equity and its dimensions, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 31(2): 141–159.
  83. Küçükergin, K. G., & Dedeoğlu, B. B. (2014). Fast food restoranlarda fiziksel çevre, fiyat algısı ve tekrar satın alma eğilimi arasındaki ilişki, Uluslararası Alanya İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 6(1), 101-107.
  84. Langner, T., Schmidt, J., & Fischer, A. (2015). Is it really love? A comparative investigation of the emotional nature of brand and interpersonal love, Psychology & Marketing, 32(6), 624-634.
  85. Lazarevic, V. (2012). Encouraging brand loyalty in fickle Generation Y consumers, Young Consumers, (13), 1, 45-61.
  86. Lee, H. J., & Kang, M. S. (2012). The Effect of Brand Experience on Brand Relationship Quality, Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, 16(1). 87-98.
  87. Lin, Y. H. (2015). Innovative brand experience's influence on brand equity and brand satisfaction, Journal of Business Research, 68(11), 2254-2259.
  88. Lu, J., & Xu, Y. (2015). Chinese Young Consumers Brand Loyalty Toward Sportswear Products: a Perspective of Self-Congruity, Journal of Product & Brand Management, 24(4), 365-376.
  89. Madeline, S., & Sihombing, S. O. (2019). The Impact of Brand Experiences on Brand Love, Brand Trust, and Brand Loyalt: An Emprical Study, Jurnal Bisnis dan Manajemen, 20(2), 91-107.
  90. Malik, G., & Guptha, A. (2013). Measuring ‘Brand Love’: Understanding the Attitude of Millennials towards Select Brands. Ushus-Journal of Business Management, 12(4), 1–30.
  91. Meyer, C., & Schwager, A. (2007). Understanding customer experience, Harvard Business Review, 85 (2): 117–126.
  92. Meydan, C.H., & Şeşen, H. (2015). Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli AMOS Uygulamaları, 2. Baskı, Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık.
  93. Moralıoğlu, D. (2014). Ben Marka Olsam, 1. Baskı, İstanbul: Epsilon Yayıncılık.
  94. Moralıoğlu, D. (2016). Marka Algısı, http://didemmoralioglu.com/marka-algisi/(Date of Access: 15.01.2018).
  95. Nalbant, M. (2017). Tüketici Davranışları Kapsamında Marka Aşkı Kavramı ve Starbucks Örneği, (Yüksek Lisans Tezi), Ankara: Gazi Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  96. Nakip, M. (2013). Pazarlamada Araştırma Teknikleri, Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  97. Nejad, F.M., Samadi, S., Ashraf, Y.A.P., & Tolabi, Z. (2015). Affecting Factors of Consumers Intent to Buy in the Food Industry by Emphasizing Brand Experience (Case Study: Mashhad TABAROK Company), Iranian Journal of Management Studies, 8(2), 243-263.
  98. Ness, M., Gorton, M., & Kuznesof, S. (2002). The student food shopper: Segmentation on the basis of attitudes to store features and shopping behaviour, British Food Journal, 104 (7). 506-525.
  99. Nysveen, H., & Pedersen, P. E. (2014). Influences of cocreation on brand experience, International Journal of Market Research, 56(6), 807-832.
  100. Netemeyer, R. G., Krishnan, B., Pullig, C., Wang, G., Yagci, M., Dean, D., ... & Wirth, F. (2004). Developing and Validating Measures of Facets of Customer-Based Brand Equity, Journal of Business Research, 57(2), 209-224.
  101. Iglesias, O., Singh, J. J., & Batista-Foguet, J. M. (2011). The role of brand experience and affective commitment in determining brand loyalty, Journal of Brand Management, 18(8), 570-582.
  102. Iglesias, O., Markovic, S., & Rialp, J. (2019). How does sensory brand experience influence brand equity? Considering the roles of customer satisfaction, customer affective commitment, and employee empathy, Journal of Business Research, 96, 343-354.
  103. Ismail, A. R., & Spinelli, G. (2012). Effects of brand love, personality and image on word of mouth: The case of fashion brands among young consumers, Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 16, 386–398.
  104. İslamoğlu & Altunışık, R. (2013). Tüketici Davranışları, 4. Baskı, İstanbul: Beta Basım Yayım Dağıtım.
  105. Önen, V. (2018). Marka Değerinin Marka Aşkına Etkisinin İncelenmesi: Starbucks Cafe Örneği, Avrasya Sosyal ve Ekonomi Araştırmaları Dergisi. 5(1), 49-63.
  106. Özçalık, F. (2017). Pozitif Ve Negatif Duygusallığın Örgütsel Sinizm Üzerindeki Etkisinde Psikolojik Sermayenin Rolü, (Doktora Tezi), Tokat: Gazi Osmanpaşa Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  107. Özdamar, K. (2017). Ölçek ve Test Geliştirme Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesi IBM SPSS IBM SPSS Amos ve Minitab Uygulamalı, Eskişehir: Nisan Kitabevi.
  108. Pandowo, A. (2016). How to create brand love in private label: The role of satisfaction as intervening variable, Journal of Marketing Management, 4(2), 81-91.
  109. Pauwels-Delassus, V., & Zarantonello, L. (2016). Exploring the Relationship between Brand Experience and Brand Love. Keynote Speech 21st International Conference on Corporate and Marketing Communications, 160-163.
  110. Papatya N., & Papatya G., (2013). Hazcı Algılamaların Marka Değeri Boyutlarına Etkisi: Cep Telefonu Markasında Bir Uygulama, 18. Ulusal Pazarlama Kongresi, 269-284.
  111. Phiri, N. E. M. (2018). The Mediating Role of Emotions in the Relationship between Experiential Marketing and Repurchase Intention of Energy Drinks: A Case of Generation Y (PhD. Thesis), Johannesburg, Unıversity of the Witwatersrand.
  112. Pitta, D. A., & Katsanis, L.P. (1995). Understanding brand equity for successful brand extension, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 12(4), 51-64.
  113. Prentice, C., Wang, X., & Loureiro, S. M. C. (2019). The influence of brand experience and service quality on customer engagement, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 50, 50-59.
  114. Quinn, S. (2016). Brand Equity is Built on Customer, https://blogs.sas.com/content/customeranalytics/2016/06/22/brand-equity-is-built-on-customer-experience/ , (Date of Access: 25.02.2018).
  115. Rajumesh, S. (2014). The impact of consumer experience on brand loyalty: The mediating role of brand attitude, International Journal of Management and Social Sciences Research (IJMSSR), 3(1), 73-79.
  116. Riivits-Arkonsuo, I., & Leppiman, A. (2015). Young Consumers and their Brand love, International Journal of Business and Social Research, 5(10), 33-44.
  117. Roberts, K. (2006). Lovemarks: Markaların Ötesindeki Gelecek, Çev. İnci Berna Kalınyazgan, İstanbul: MediaCat Kitapları.
  118. Rodrigues, P., Ferreira, P., Rodrigues, P., & Costa, P. (2017). Is love online or offline? Brand experience, brand love and brand equity in a fashion retail store. In 5th International Consumer Brand Relationships Conference, Porto, Portugal, http://hdl.handle.net/11328/2240, (Date of Access: 13.08.2018).
  119. Roy, S. K., Eshghi, A., & Sarkar, A. (2013). Antecedents and consequences of brand love, Journal of Brand Management, 20(4), 325-332.
  120. Sarkar, A., Ponnam, A., & Murthy, B. K. (2012). Understanding and measuring romantic brand love, Journal of Customer Behaviour, 11(4), 324-347.
  121. Sarkar, A. (2014). Brand love in emerging market: a qualitative investigation, Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 17(4), 481-494.
  122. Sarkar, A., Sarkar, J.G., & Bhatt, G. (2019), "Store love in single brand retailing: the roles of relevant moderators", Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 37 No. 2, pp. 168-181.
  123. Schmitt, B, (1999). Experiential Marketing, Journal of Marketing Management. 15 (1-3), 53-67.
  124. Schmid, D. A., & Huber, F. (2019). Brand love: Emotionality and development of its elements across the relationship lifecycle, Psychology & Marketing, 36(4), 305-320.
  125. Seçer, İ. (2015). SPSS ve LISREL ile Pratik Veri Analizi: Analiz ve Raporlaştırma, 2. Baskı, Ankara: Anı Yayıncılık.
  126. Shahzad, M. F., Bilal, M., Xiao, J., & Yousaf, T. (2019). Impact of smartphone brand experience on brand equity: With mediation effect of hedonic emotions, utilitarian emotions and brand personality, Journal of Islamic Marketing, 10(2), 440-464.
  127. Shamim, A., & Mohsin Butt, M. (2013). A critical model of brand experience consequences, Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 25(1), 102-117.
  128. Shimp, T. A., & Madden, T. J. (1988). Consumer-object relations: A conceptual framework based analogously on Sternberg’s triangular theory of love, Advances in consumer research, 15(1), 163-168.
  129. Shim, S. I., Forsythe, S., & Kwon, W. S. (2015). Impact of online flow on brand experience and loyalty, Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 16(1), 56-71.
  130. Sin, L. Y., Alan, C. B., Yau, O. H., Chow, R. P., Lee, J. S., & Lau, L. B. (2005). Relationship marketing orientation: scale development and cross-cultural validation, Journal of Business Research, 58(2), 185-194.
  131. Singh, P. K., & Pattanayak, J. K. (2016). Study of the Relationship among the Factors of Brand Equity: A Study on Fast-food Brands, Global Business Review, 17(5), 1227–1239.
  132. Skard, S., Nysveen, H., & Pedersen, P. E. (2011). Brand and customer experience in service organizations: Literature review and brand experience construct validation. Institute for Research in Economics and Business Administration Working Paper (No. 09/11) (2011), Bergen, SNF: Institute for Research in Economics and Business Administration, https://openaccess.nhh.no/nhh-xmlui/handle/11250/166668 , (Date of Access: 03.07.2019).
  133. Spry, A., Pappu, R., & Bettina Cornwell, T. (2011). Celebrity endorsement, brand credibility and brand equity, European Journal of Marketing, 45(6), 882-909.
  134. Srinivasan, V., Park, C. S., & Chang, D. R. (2005). An Approach to the Measurement, Analysis, and Prediction of Brand Equity and Its Sources, Management Science, 51(9), 1433–1448.
  135. Sternberg, R. J. (1986). A Triangular Theory of Love, Psychological Review, 93(2), 119-135.
  136. Tarhan, N. (2008). Hoşlanma, Sevgi ve Aşk Arasındaki Farklar, https://www.nevzattarhan.com/hoslanma-sevgi-ve-ask-arasindaki-farklar.html , (Date of Access: 23.10.2019).
  137. Taşkın, Ç. & Akat, Ö. (2008). Sürdürülebilir Rekabetçi Üstünlük Sağlamada “Tüketici Temelli Marka Değeri” Ölçümü: Beyaz Eşya Sektöründe Bir Araştırma, Bursa İli Örneği, 13.Ulusal Pazarlama Kongresi, 25-29 Ekim, Nevşehir, s. 41-48.
  138. TDK. (2019). Büyük Türkçe Sözlük, , https://sozluk.gov.tr/ , (Date of Access: 01.03.2019).
  139. TUİK. (2017). Adrese Dayalı Nüfus Kayıt Sistemi, https://biruni.tuik.gov.tr/medas/?kn=95&locale=tr (Date of Access: 20.06.2018).
  140. Turgut, M. U. ve Gültekin, B. (2015). The critical role of brand love in clothing brands. Journal of Business Economics and Finance, 126-152.
  141. Tek, Ö. B., & Özgül, E. (2013). Modern Pazarlama İlkeleri, 4. Baskı, İzmir: Birleşik Matbaacılık.
  142. Tiwari, M. K. (2010). Separation of brand equity and brand value, Global Business Review, 11(3), 421-434.
  143. Ustasüleyman, T., & Eyüboğlu, K. (2010). Bireylerin İnternet Bankacılığını Benimsemesini Etkileyen Faktörlerin Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli ile Belirlenmesi, BDDK Bankacılık ve Finansal Piyasalar, (4) 2, 11-38.
  144. Uyar, K., & Lekesizcan, F. S. (2017). Markanın Benliği İfade Etmesi Ve Sosyal Görünürlüğünün Marka Aşkı İle İlişkisi. BMIJ, 5(4), 154-171.
  145. Uzman, M. (2016). Marka Değeri, Nasıl Ölçümlenir? Nasıl Yönetilir, Nasıl Yorumlanır? The Brand Age Dergisi, Aralık, Sayı: 95, 34-48.
  146. Ünal, S., & Erciş, A. (2007). Genç Pazarın Satın Alma Tarzlarının Belirlenmesi Üzerine Bir Araştırma. Atatürk Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 21 (1), 321-336.
  147. Ünal, S., & Aydın, H. (2013). An investigation on the evaluation of the factors affecting brand love, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 92, 76-85.
  148. Wani, A. (2017). A comprehensive review of brand equity: Conceptualization, origin and evolution, International Academic Institute for Science and Technology, 4(3), 82-91.
  149. van der Westhuizen, L. M. (2018). Brand loyalty: exploring self-brand connection and brand experience, Journal of Product & Brand Management, 27(2), 172-184.
  150. Ishikawa, K. (2013). Brand dynamics: The effects of brand personality and brand experience on emotional brand attachment. (PhD. Thesis). Southern Illinois University, Department of Business Administration in the Graduate School.
  151. Yang, J., Zheng, R., Zhao, L., & Gupta, S. (2017). Enhancing customer brand experience and loyalty through enterprise microblogs: Empirical evidence from a communication framework perspective, Information Technology & People, 30(3), 580-601.
  152. Yardımcı, A. (2016). Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesi Ve Pazar Araştırmalarında Kullanımı, (Doktora Tezi), İstanbul: İstanbul Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  153. Yaşlıoğlu, M. M. (2017). Sosyal bilimlerde faktör analizi ve geçerlilik: Keşfedici ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizlerinin kullanılması. İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 46 (özel sayı), 74-85.
  154. Yazıcıoğlu, Y., & Erdoğan, S. (2004). SPSS Uygulamalı Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemleri, Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık.
  155. Yılmaz, V., & İlhan Dalbudak, Z. (2018). Aracı Değişken Etkisinin İncelenmesi: Yüksek Hızlı Tren İşletmeciliği Üzerine Bir Uygulama, Uluslararası Yönetim İktisat ve İşletme Dergisi, 14, 2, 517-534
  156. Yoo, B., Donthu, N., & Lee, S. (2000). An Examination of Selected Marketing Mix Elements and Brand Equity, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(2), 195-211.
  157. Yoo, B., & Donthu, N. (2001). Developing and Validating a Multidimensional Consumer-Based Brand Equity Scale, Journal of Business Research, 52 (1), 1-14.
  158. Yoon, D., & Youn, S. (2016). Brand experience on the website: its mediating role between perceived interactivity and relationship quality, Journal of Interactive Advertising, 16(1), 1-15.
  159. Yüksel, Ü., & Yüksel-Mermod, A. (2005). Marka Yönetimi ve Marka Değerinin Ölçülmesi, 1. Basım, İstanbul: Beta.
  160. Zarantonello, L., & Schmitt, B. H. (2010). Using the brand experience scale to profile consumers and predict consumer behaviour, Journal of Brand Management, 17(7), 532-540.
  161. Zarantonello, L., & Schmitt, B. H. (2013). The impact of event marketing on brand equity: The mediating roles of brand experience and brand attitude, International journal of advertising, 32(2), 255-280.
  162. Zhang, Xi. (2019). Research on the Impact of Brand Experience on Brand Love, American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 9, 898-903.
  163. Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer Perceptions of Price, Quality, and Value: A Means-End Model and Synthesis of Evidence, Journal of Marketing, 52(3), 2–22.
  164. Whang, Y.O, Allen, J., Sahoury, N., & Zhang, H. (2004). Falling in Love with a Product: The Structure of a Romantic Consumer-Product Relationship. In: Kahn, B.E. and Luce, M.F. (eds.), Advances in Consumer Research, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 31, 320–327.
  165. Wood, L. (2000). Brands and brand equity: definition and management, Management Decision, 38(9), 662-669.
  166. Wood, L. (2004). Dimensions of brand purchasing behaviour: Consumers in the 18–24 age group. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, An International Research Review, 4(1), 9-24.
  167. Woodrow, L. (2014). Writing about Structural Equation Modelling. In Writing about Quantitative Research in Applied Linguistics (pp. 122-134). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
  168. Xixiang, S., Gilal, R. G., & Gilal, F. G. (2016). Brand experience as a contemporary source of brand equity in 21st century: evidence from the Chinese consumer market, International Journal of Education and Research, 4(9), 63-76.