Vol. 9 No. 2 (2021): Business & Management Studies: An International Journal

The effect of leadership and talent development programs on performance: A research on retail sales representatives

Egemen Ünal
Phd. Student, Gebze Technical University
Oya Erdil
Prof. Dr., Gebze Teknik University
Hüseyin İnce
Prof. Dr., Gebze Technical University

Published 2021-06-25


  • Liderlik, Eğitim Değerlendirme, Görev Performansı, Nesnel Performans, Bağlamsal Performans
  • Leadership,
  • Training Evaluation,
  • Task Performance,
  • Contextual Performance,
  • Objective Performance

How to Cite

Ünal, E., Erdil, O., & İnce, H. (2021). The effect of leadership and talent development programs on performance: A research on retail sales representatives. Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, 9(2), 603-624. https://doi.org/10.15295/bmij.v9i2.1808


This study aims to examine the effects of leadership behaviours and talent development programs on the perceived (subjective) and objective performance of sales representatives. At the same time, the relationship between the task and non-task dimension of performance and objective performance is also examined. The data collection process was carried out in two different periods, three months apart. A total of 269 sales employees of a fashion retail firm operating in Turkey who have successfully related talent development training participated in the study. In the research, various surveys in which employees rate themselves, supervisors rate employees and employees rate supervisors were applied through computer-based systems. According to the research findings, both task-oriented and relationship-oriented leadership behaviours and training activities positively affect performance. However, when it comes to objective performance, this effect is only valid for training activities. In addition, a moderate correlation was found between objective performance and task performance, and a weak correlation with objective performance and contextual performance. Therefore, practitioners can rely on training and development activities to positively influence the objective performance of employees. In addition, positive developments in employees' organizational citizenship behaviours can be achieved through relationship-oriented leadership behaviours. The study aims to reveal a unique contribution by evaluating the relationship of leadership behaviours and all levels of training evaluation with different types of performance in a single study.


Download data is not yet available.


  1. Alliger, G. M., ve Janak, E. A. (1989). Kirkpatrick’s Levels Of Training Criteria: Thirty Years Later. Personnel Psychology, 42, 331–342.
  2. Alliger, G. M., Tannenbaum, S. I., Bennett, W., Traver, H., ve Shotland, A. (1997). A Meta‐Analysis Of The Relations Among Training Criteria. Personnel Psychology, 50(2), 341–358. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1997.tb00911.x
  3. Anderson, E., ve Oliver, R. L. (1987). Perspectives on Behavior-Based versus Outcome-Based Salesforce Control Systems. Journal of Marketing, 51(4), 76–88. https://doi.org/10.2307/1251249
  4. Arthur, W., Bennett, W., Edens, P. S., ve Bell, S. T. (2003). Effectiveness of training in organizations: A meta-analysis of design and evaluation features. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(2), 234–245. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.2.234
  5. Avolio, B. J., ve Bass, B. M. (2002). Developing Potential Across A Full Range Of Leadership: Cases on Transactional and Transformational Leadership. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  6. Bass, B. M., ve Bass, R. (2008). The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Applications (4th baskı). Free Press.
  7. Behrman, D. N., ve Perreault, W. D. (1982). Measuring the Performance of Industrial Salespersons. Journal of Business Research, 10(3), 355–370.
  8. Bell, B. S., Tannenbaum, S. I., Kevin Ford, J., Noe, R. A., ve Kraiger, K. (2017). 100 Years Of Training And Development Research: What We Know And Where We Should Go. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 305–323. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000142
  9. Binning, J. F., ve Barrett, G. V. (1989). Validity of Personnel Decisions: A Conceptual Analysis of the Inferential and Evidential Bases. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(3), 478–494. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.3.478
  10. Boles, J. S., Donthu, N., ve Lohtia, R. (1995). Salesperson evaluation using relative performance efficiency: The application of data envelopment analysis. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 15(3), 31–49. https://doi.org/10.1080/08853134.1995.10754027
  11. Bommer, W. H., Johnson, J. L., Rich, G. A., Podsakoff, P. M., ve Mackenzie, S. B. (1995). On the Interchangeability of Objective and Subjective Measures of Employee Performance: a Meta‐Analysis. Personnel Psychology, 48(3), 587–605.
  12. Borgmann, L., Rowold, J., ve Bormann, K. C. (2016). Integrating leadership research: a meta-analytical test of Yukl’s meta-categories of leadership. Personnel Review, 45(6), 1340–1366. https://doi.org/10.1108/PR-07-2014-0145
  13. Borman, W. C., ve Motowidlo, S. J. (1997). Task Performance and Contextual Performance: The Meaning for Personnel Selection Research. Human Performance, 10(2), 99–109.
  14. Brief, A. P., ve Motowidlo, S. J. (1986). Prosocial Organizational Behaviors. Academy of Management Review, 11(4), 710–725.
  15. Brogden, H. E., ve Taylor, E. K. (1950). The Dollar Criterion - Applying the Cost Accounting Concept to Criterion Construction. Personnel Psychology, 3, 133–154.
  16. Burke, C. S., Stagl, K. C., Klein, C., Goodwin, G. F., Salas, E., ve Halpin, S. M. (2006). What type of leadership behaviors are functional in teams? A meta-analysis. Leadership Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.02.007
  17. Campbell, J. P., Gasser, M. B., ve Oswald, F. L. (1996). The Substantive Nature of Job Performance Variability. Içinde K. R. Murphy (Ed.), Individual Differences and Behavior in Organizations. Jossey-Bass Inc.
  18. Campbell, J. P., ve Wiernik, B. M. (2015). The Modeling and Assessment of Work Performance. Içinde Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior (C. 2, Sayı 1). https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032414-111427
  19. Castleberry, S. B., ve Tanner, J. F. (2011). Selling Building Partnerships (8th baskı). McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
  20. Churchill, G. A., Ford, N. M., Hartley, S. W., ve Walker, O. C. (1985). The Determinants of Salesperson Performance: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Marketing Research, 22(2), 103. https://doi.org/10.2307/3151357
  21. Conway, J. M., ve Huffcutt, A. I. (1997). Psychometric Properties of Multisource Performance Ratings: A meta-Analysis of Subordinate, Supervisor, Peer, and Self-Ratings. Human Perfomance, 10(4), 331–360.
  22. Cooper, W. H. (1981). Ubiquitous Halo. Psychological Bulletin, 90(2), 218–244. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.90.2.218
  23. Cummings, G. G., MacGregor, T., Davey, M., Lee, H., Wong, C. A., Lo, E., Muise, M., ve Stafford, E. (2010). Leadership styles and outcome patterns for the nursing workforce and work environment: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(3), 363–385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.08.006
  24. Cummings, G. G., Tate, K., Lee, S., Wong, C. A., Paananen, T., Micaroni, S. P. M., ve Chatterjee, G. E. (2018). Leadership styles and outcome patterns for the nursing workforce and work environment: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 85(April), 19–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2018.04.016
  25. Damayanti, R. W., Hartono, B., Wijaya, A. R., Helmi, A. F., ve Riyono, B. (2019). A Meta Analysis Study Leadership and Project Success. International Conference on Industrial Enterprise and System Engineering, 2, 369–374. https://doi.org/10.2991/icoiese-18.2019.65
  26. DeClerk, C. C. (2007). The relationship between retail store manager leadership styles and employee generational cohort, performance, and satisfaction. UNIVERSITY OF PHOENIX.
  27. Ekvall, G., ve Arvonen, J. (1991). Change-centered leadership: An extension of the two-dimensional model. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 7(1), 17–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/0956-5221(91)90024-U
  28. Ererdi, C., ve Durgun, E. Ü. (2020). Conceptual Review of Leadership on Organizational Performance. Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, 8(1), 1044–1095. https://doi.org/10.15295/bmij.v8i1.1336
  29. Erffmeyer, R. C., Russ, K. R., ve Hair, J. F. (1991). Needs Assessment and Evaluation in Sales-Training Programs. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 11(1), 17–30. https://doi.org/10.1080/08853134.1991.10753856
  30. Fernandez, S. (2008). Examining the Effects of Leadership Behavior on Employee Perceptions of Performance and Job Satisfaction. Public Performance & Management Review, 32(2), 175–205. https://doi.org/10.2753/pmr1530-9576320201
  31. Fisher, B. M., ve Edwards, J. E. (1988). Consideration and Initiating Structure and Their Relationships With Leader Effectiveness: A Meta-Analysis. Academy of Management Proceedings, 1988(1), 201–205. https://doi.org/10.5465/ambpp.1988.4980535
  32. Futrell, C. M. (2011). Fundamental of Selling (12th baskı). McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
  33. Goldstein, I. L. (1980). Training in Work Organizations. Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 229–272.
  34. Goodman, S. A., ve Svyantek, D. J. (1999). Person – Organization Fit and Contextual Performance : Do Shared Values Matter. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 55, 254–275.
  35. Harari, M. B., Reaves, A. C., ve Viswesvaran, C. (2016). Creative and innovative performance: a meta-analysis of relationships with task, citizenship, and counterproductive job performance dimensions. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 25(4), 495–511. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2015.1134491
  36. Ingram, T. N., LaForge, R. W., Avila, R. A., Schwepker, C. H., ve Williams, M. R. (2020). Sales Management : Analysis and Decision Making (10th baskı). Routledge.
  37. Jaramillo, F., Carrillat, F. A., ve Locander, W. B. (2003). Starting to Solve the Method Puzzle in Salesperson Self-Report Evaluations. The Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 23(4), 369–377.
  38. Jaramillo, F., Carrillat, F. A., ve Locander, W. B. (2004). Response to Comment: Starting to Solve the Method Puzzle in Salesperson Self-Report Evaluations. The Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 24(2), 141–145.
  39. Jaramillo, F., Carrillat, F. A., ve Locander, W. B. (2005). A Meta-Analytic Comparison of Managerial Ratings and Self-Evaluations. The Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 25(4), 315–328.
  40. Johnston, M. W., ve Marshall, G. W. (2016). Sales Force Management : Leadership, Innovation, Technology (12th baskı). Routledge.
  41. Kilburn, B. R. (2007). The Effects of Leader Behavior on Follower Attitudes and Intentions Toward the Provision of Voluntary Upward Feedback. The University of Memphis.
  42. Kirkpatrick, D. L. (1977). Evaluating Training Programs: Evidence vs. Proof. Training and Development Journal, 31(11), 9–12.
  43. Kirkpatrick, D. L., ve Kirkpatrick, J. D. (2006). Evaluating Training Programs: The Four Levels (3rd (Ed.)). Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
  44. Kirkpatrick, D. L., ve Kirkpatrick, J. D. (2007). Implementing The Four Levels A Practical Guide for Effective Evaluation of Training Programs. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
  45. Kirkpatrick, J. D., ve Kirkpatrick, W. K. (2010). Training On Trial How Workplace Learning Must Reinvent Itself to Remain Relevant. Amacom.
  46. Kuvaas, B., ve Dysvik, A. (2009). Perceived investment in employee development, intrinsic motivation and work performance. Human Resource Management Journal. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.2009.00103.x
  47. Levy, M., ve Sharma, A. (1993). Relationships Among Measures of Retail Salesperson Performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 21(3), 231–238. https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070393213006
  48. Lowery, C. M., ve Krilowicz, T. J. (1994). Relationships among Nontask Behaviors, Rated Performance, and Objective Performance Measures. Psychological Reports, 74(2), 571–578. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1994.74.2.571
  49. MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., ve Fetter, R. (1991). Organizational citizenship behavior and objective productivity as determinants of managerial evaluations of salespersons’ performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(1), 123–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90037-T
  50. MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., ve Fetter, R. (1993). The Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Evaluations of Salesperson Performance. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 70–80. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299305700105
  51. MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., ve Rich, G. A. (2001). Transformational and transactional leadership and salesperson performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 29(2), 115–134. https://doi.org/10.1177/03079459994506
  52. Mekraz, A., ve Gundala, R. R. (2016). Leadership Style and Retail Store Performance – A Case Study of Discount Retail Chain. Journal of Business and Retail Management Research, 10(2), 1–10.
  53. Michel, J. W., Lyons, B. D., ve Cho, J. (2011). Is the Full-Range Model of Leadership Really a Full-Range Model of Effective Leader Behavior? Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 18(4), 493–507. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051810377764
  54. Motowidlo, S. J. (2000). Some Basic Issues Related to Contextual Performance and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Human Resource Management. Human Resource Management Review, 10(1), 115–126. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1053-4822(99)00042-X
  55. Murphy, K. R. (1990). Job Performance and Productivity. Içinde K. R. Murphy & F. E. Saal (Ed.), Psychology in Organizations: Integrating Science and Practice (ss. 157–178).
  56. Northouse, P. G. (2016). Leadership:Theory and Practice (7th baskı). SAGE Publications. https://doi.org/2016
  57. Organ, D. W. (1997). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: It’s Construct Clean-Up Time. Human Performance, 10(2), 85–97. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327043hup1002
  58. Organ, D. W. (2018). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Recent Trends and Developments. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 5(1), 295–306.
  59. Organ, D. W., Podsakoff, P. M., ve MacKenzie, S. B. (2006). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Nature, Antecedents, and Consequence. SAGE Publications, Inc.
  60. Özdevecioğlu, M., ve Kanıgür, S. (2009). Çalışanların İlişki ve Görev Yönelimli Liderlik Algılamalarının Performansları Üzerindeki Etkileri. KMU İİBF Dergisi, 11(16), 53–82.
  61. Plouffe, C. R., Hulland, J., ve Wachner, T. (2009). Customer-directed Selling behaviors and performance: A comparison of existing perspectives. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 37(4), 422–439. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-009-0142-4
  62. Podsakoff, N. P., Whiting, S. W., Podsakoff, P. M., ve Blume, B. D. (2009). Individual- and Organizational-Level Consequences of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(1), 122–141. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013079
  63. Podsakoff, P. M., Scott B. MacKenzie, Paine, J. B., ve Bachrach, D. G. (2000). Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Critical Review of the Theoretical and Empirical Literature and Suggestions for Future Research Philip. Journal of Management, 26(3), 513–563. https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2614(78)85552-3
  64. Porr, D., ve Fields, D. (2006). Implicit leadership effects on multi-source ratings for management development. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 651–668. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940610690196
  65. Rich, G. A., Bommer, W. H., Mackenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., ve Johnson, J. L. (1999). Apples and Apples or Apples and Oranges? A Meta-Analysis of Objective and Subjective Measures of Salesperson Performance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 19(4), 41–52.
  66. Rogelberg, S. G. (Ed.). (2007). Encyclopedia of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. SAGE Publications.
  67. Rotundo, M., ve Rotman, J. (2002). Defining and Measuring Individual Level Job Performance: A Review and Integration. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(5), 225–254.
  68. Rotundo, M., ve Sackett, P. R. (2002). The Relative Importance of Task, Citizenship, and Counterproductive Performance to Global Ratings of Job Performance: A Policy-Capturing Approach. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 66–80. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.1.66
  69. Salas, E., DiazGranados, D., Klein, C., Burke, C. S., Stagl, K. C., Goodwin, G. F., ve Halpin, S. M. (2008). Does team training improve team performance? A meta-analysis. Human Factors, 50(6), 903–933. https://doi.org/10.1518/001872008X375009
  70. Salgado, J. F., ve Moscoso, S. (2019). Meta-analysis of interrater reliability of supervisory performance ratings: Effects of appraisal purpose, scale type, and range restriction. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(2281). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02281
  71. Schmidt, F. L., ve Kaplan, L. B. (1971). Composite vs. Multiple Criteria: A Review and Resolution of the Controversy. Personnel Psychology, 24(3), 419–434. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1971.tb00365.x
  72. Shannahan, K. L. J., Bush, A. J., ve Shannahan, R. J. (2013). Are your salespeople coachable? How salesperson coachability, trait competitiveness, and transformational leadership enhance sales performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 41(1), 40–54. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-012-0302-9
  73. Sharma, A., Rich, G. A., ve Levy, M. (2004). Comment: Starting to Solve the Method Puzzle in Salesperson Self-Report Evaluations. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 24(2), 135–139. https://doi.org/10.1080/08853134.2004.10749025
  74. Singh, V. L., Manrai, A. K., ve Manrai, L. A. (2015). Sales training: A state of the art and contemporary review. Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science, 20(38), 54–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jefas.2015.01.001
  75. Smith, C. A., Organ, D. W., ve Near, J. P. (1983). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Nature and Antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68(4), 653–663.
  76. Soysal, S. (2005). Mağazacılık: Mükemmel Müşteri Hizmeti ve Etkili Satış Teknikleri (10th baskı). Remzi Kitabevi.
  77. Spiro, R. L., Rich, G. A., ve Stanton, W. J. (2008). Management of a Sales Force (12th baskı). McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
  78. Tannenbaum, S. I., Mathieu, J. E., Salas, E., ve Cannon-Bowers, J. A. (1991). Meeting Trainees’ Expectations: The Influence of Training Fulfillment on the Development of Commitment, Self-Efficacy, and Motivation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(6), 759–769. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.76.6.759
  79. Thang, N., Quang, T., ve Buyens, D. (2010). THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRAINING AND FIRM PERFORMANCE : A LITERATURE Review. Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 18(January), 36–45.
  80. Tracey, J. B., ve Hinkin, T. R. (1998). Transformational Leadership or Effective Managerial Practices? Group Organization Management, 23(3), 220–236. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601198233002
  81. Tyagi, P. K. (1985). Relative Importance of Key Job Dimensions and Leadership Behaviors in Motivating Salesperson Work Performance. Journal of Marketing, 49(3), 76–86. https://doi.org/10.2307/1251617
  82. Uçar, A. C., Eren, E., ve Erzengin, E. (2012). Determination of the Relationship Between Leadership Perceptions of Blue Collars and Organizational Outcomes by Using MLQ Analysis. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 41, 196–208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.04.024
  83. Vedamani, G. G. (2017). Retail Management: Functional Principles and Practices (5th baskı). Pearson.
  84. Viswesvaran, C. (1993). Modeling Job Performance: Is There a General Factor? Department of Management and Organizations, June 1993, 146.
  85. Viswesvaran, C., ve Ones, D. S. (2000). Perspectives on Models of Job Performance. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 8(4), 216–226. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2389.00151
  86. Viswesvaran, C., Ones, D. S., ve Schmidt, F. L. (1996). Comparative Analysis of the Reliability of Job Performance Ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(5), 557–574. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.81.5.557
  87. Viswesvaran, C., Schmidt, F. L., ve Ones, D. S. (2005). Is there a general factor in ratings of job performance? a meta-analytic framework for disentangling substantive and error influences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(1), 108–131. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.1.108
  88. Wilson, P. H. (1999). A Model of salespeople’s training attitudes and related outcomes. University of North Texas.
  89. Wilson, P. H., Strutton, D., ve Farris, M. T. (2002). Investigating the Perceptual Aspect of Sales Training. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 22(2), 77–86.
  90. Yukl, G. (1999). An Evaluative Essay on Current Conceptions of Effective Leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(1), 33–48. https://doi.org/10.1080/135943299398429
  91. Yukl, G. (2012). Effective Leadership Behavior: What We Know and What Questions Need More Attention. Academy of Management Perspectives, 26(4), 66–85. https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2012.0088
  92. Yukl, G. (2013). Leadership in Organizations (Global Edition) (8th baskı). Pearson Education.
  93. Yukl, G., Gordon, A., ve Taber, T. (2002). A Hierarchical Taxonomy of Leadership Behavior: Integrating a Half Century of Behavior Research. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 9(1), 15–32. https://doi.org/10.1177/107179190200900102
  94. Yukl, G., Mahsud, R., Prussia, G., ve Hassan, S. (2019). Effectiveness of broad and specific leadership behaviors. Personnel Review, 48(3), 774–783.