Vol. 9 No. 2 (2021): Business & Management Studies: An International Journal

Determining strategies for entrance to foreign markets: An analysis based on analytical hierarchy process (AHP)

Metin Çakıroğlu
Res. Asst., Giresun University
Esin Can
Prof. Dr., Yıldız Technical University

Published 2021-06-25


  • Türk Çokuluslu İşletmeleri,
  • Pazara Giriş,
  • Pazara Giriş Stratejileri,
  • Analitik Hiyerarşi Prosesi
  • Turkish Multinational Enterprises,
  • Market Entry,
  • Market Entry Strategies,
  • Analytical Hierarchy Process

How to Cite

Çakıroğlu, M., & Can, E. (2021). Determining strategies for entrance to foreign markets: An analysis based on analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Business &Amp; Management Studies: An International Journal, 9(2), 714–736. https://doi.org/10.15295/bmij.v9i2.1776


In today’s global world, the developing countries are pretty active players both as a market and as an international investor in line with internationalization strategies. Investing in one or more countries are seen as strategically necessary by companies located in developing countries, and they search for ways to enter markets.

This research aims to develop a methodology to identify the alternatives for foreign markets entry strategies and facilitate managers who are volunteering to enter foreign markets like Turkey. The methodology deals with the risks and uncertainties associated with foreign markets access strategies and guides entry. The research has been designed with the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) since it allows selecting the most suitable strategy among diffent alternatives and enabling enterprises to make more accurate and straightforward decisions to confront uncertainties in the host country. In the research, the factors of the host country have been determined the main criterion of highest importance among the main criteria of influencing market entry.  Therefore Turkish Multinational Enterprise (TMNE) choose joint venture and foreign direct investment strategies that provide a high level of control power among a range of market entry alternatives at a higher grade. 


Download data is not yet available.


  1. Agarwal, S. (1994). Socio-Cultural Distance and the Choice of Joint Venture. A Contingency Perspective. Journal of International Marketing. 2, 63-80. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1069031X9400200205
  2. Anderson, E. ve Gatignon, H. (1986). Modes of Foreign Entry: A Transaction Cost Analysis and Propositions. Journal of International Business Studies. 17(3), 1-26
  3. Aybar, S. (2016). Determinants of Turkish Outward Foreign Direct Investment. Transnational Corporations Review. 8(1), 79-92. https://doi.org/10.1080/19186444.2016.1162486
  4. Ayçin, E. (2019). Çok Kriterli Karar Verme: Bilgisayar Uygulamalı Çözümler. Ankara: Atlas Akademik Basım Yayın Dağıtım
  5. Ayyagari, M., Demirgüç, K. A. ve Maksimovic, V. (2011). Firm Innovation in Emerging Markets: The Role of Finance Governance, and Competition. Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis. 46(6), 1545-1580. doi:10.1017/S0022109011000378
  6. Batsakis, G., Wood, G., Azar, G. ve Singh, S. (2018). International Diversification and Firm Performance in the Post – Acquisition Period: A Resource Dependence Perspective. Journal of Business Research. 93, 151-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.02.025
  7. Beamish, P. W. ve Kachra, A. (2004). Number of Partners and JV Performance. Journal of World Business. 39(2), 107-120. doi: 10.1016/j.jwb.2003.08.013
  8. Bhaumik, S. K. ve Gelb, S. (2005). Determinants of Entry Mode Choice of MNCs in Emerging Markets: Evidence from South Africa and Egypt. Emerging Markets Finance & Trade. 41(2), 5-24. https://doi.org/10.1080/1540496X.2005.11052603
  9. Blodgett, L.L. (1991). Partner Contributions as Predictors of Equity Share in International Joint Ventures. Journal of International Business Studies. 22(1), 63-78. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490292
  10. Bodner, J. ve Capron, L. (2018). Post – Merger Integration. Journal of Organizational Design. 7(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41469-018-0027-4
  11. Bradley, F. (2002) International Marketing Strategy. 4.bs. Prentice Hall: Financial Times
  12. Brouthers, K. D. (2002). Institutional Cultural and Transaction Cost Influences on Entry Mode Choice and Performance. Journal of International Business Studies. 33(2) 203-221. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8491013
  13. Brouthers, K. D. (2013). A Retrospective on: Institutional, Cultural, and Transaction Costs Influences on Entry Mode Choice Performance. Journal of International Business Studies. 44(1), 14-22. doi:10.1057/jibs.2012.22
  14. Brouthers, L.E., Brouthers, K.D. ve Werner, S. (2000). Perceived Environmental Uncertainty, Entry Mode Choice and Satisfaction with EC-MNC Performance. British Journal of Management. 11(3), 183-195. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.00160
  15. Brouthers, K.D., Brouthers, L.E. ve Werner, S. (2003). Transaction Cost-Enhanced Entry Mode Choices and Firm Performance. Strategic Management Journal. 24(2), 1239-1248. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.362
  16. Brouthers, K. D., Brouthers, L. E. ve Werner, S. (2008). Real Options, International Entry Mode Choice and Performance. Journal of Management Studies. 45(5), 936-960. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.2007.00753.x
  17. Buckley, P., Clegg, L., Cross, A., Liu, X., Cross, H. ve Zheng, P. (2007). The Determinants of Chinese Outward Foreign Direct Investment. Journal of International Business Studies. 38, 499-518, https://www.researchgate.net/deref/http%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F10.1057%2Fjibs.2008.102
  18. Capron, L. (2016). Strategies for M&As: When is Acquisition the Right Mode to Grow. Accounting and Business Research. 46(5), 453-462. https://doi.org/10.1080/00014788.2016.1182705
  19. Cengiz, E., Gegez, A. E., Arslan, M., Pirtini, S. ve Tığlı, M. (2007). Uluslararası Pazarlara Giriş Stratejileri. 2. bs. İstanbul: Beta Basım Yayım Dağıtım
  20. Chang, S. J. ve Rosenzweig, P. M. (2001). The Choice of Entry Mode in Sequential Foreign Direct Investment. Strategic Management Journal. 22, 747-776. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.168
  21. Chang, S. J., Chung, J. ve Moon, J. J. 2013. When Do Foreign Subsidiaries Outperform Local Firms? Journal of International Business Studies. 44(8), 853-860
  22. Chatterjee, S. ve Singh, L. (1999). Are Tradeoffs Inherent in Diversification Moves? A Simultaneous Model for Type of Diversification and Mode of Expansion Decisions. Management Science. 45(1), 25-41. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.45.1.25
  23. Chen, H. ve Hu, M. Y. (2002). An Analysis of Determinants of Entry Mode and its Impact on Performance. International Business Review. 11(2), 193 – 210. DOI: 10.1016/S0969-5931(01)00055-5
  24. Chung, C. C. ve Beamish, P. W. (2012). Multi – Party International Joint Ventures: Multiple Post – Formation Change Processes. Journal of World Business. 47(4), 648-663. DOI: 10.1016/j.jwb.2011.08.001
  25. Cinquetti, C. A. (2009). Multinationals and Exports in a Large and Protected Developing Country, Review of International Economics, 16(5), 904-918. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9396.2008.00756.x
  26. Contractor, F. J., Dangol, R., Nuruzzaman, N. ve Raghunath, S. (2020). How Do Country Regulations and Business Environment Impact Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Inflows? International Business Review. 29(2), 1-13. DOI: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2019.101640
  27. Cording, M., Harrison, J. S., Hoskisson, R. E. ve Johnsen, K. (2014). Walking the Talk: A Multistakeholder Exploration of Organizational Authenticity, Employee Productivity, and Post-Merger Performance. Academy of Management Perspectives. 28(1), 38-56. https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2013.0002
  28. Cuervo-Cazurra, A. (2006). Who Cares About Corruption? Journal of International Business Studies. 37, 803-822. DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400223
  29. Cui, L. ve Jiang, F. 2009. FDI Entry Mode Choice of Chinese Firms: A Strategic Behavior Perspective. Journal of World Business. 44(4), 434 – 444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2008.11.004
  30. Cui, L., Jiang, F. ve Stening, B. (2011). The Entry – Mode Decision of Chinese Outward FDI: Firm Resources, Industry Conditions, and Institutional Forces. Thunderbird International Business Review. 53(4), 483-499. DOI: 10.1002/tie.20425
  31. Çalık, M., Altunışık, R. ve Sütütemiz, N. (2013). Bütünleşik Pazarlama İletişimi, Marka Performansı ve Pazar Performansı İlişkisinin İncelenmesi. Uluslararası Yönetim, İktisat ve İşletme Dergisi. 9(19), 137-161. https://doi.org/10.11122/ijmeb.2013.9.19.451
  32. Çiftçi, İ., Tatoğlu, E., Wood G., Demirbağ, M. ve Zaim, S. (2019). Corporate Governance and Firm Performance in Emerging Markets. International Business Review. 28, 90-103. DOI: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2018.08.004
  33. Çolak, M. (2016). The Impact of Environmental Uncertainty on International Joint Venture Performance: The Mediating Role of International Joint Venture Adaptation. Journal Global Business Advancement. 9 (3), 231-247. DOI: 10.1504/JGBA.2016.076721
  34. Davis, P.S., Desai, A. B. ve Francis, J. D. (2000). Mode of International Entry: An Isomorphism Perspective. Journal of International Business Studies. 31(2), 239-258. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490904
  35. DEİK, (2014). Turkish OFDI Continues to Grow. 1 – 34.
  36. Delios, A. ve Beamish, P. W. (2004). Joint Venture Performance Revisited: Japanese Foreign Subsidiaries Worldwide. Management International Review. 44(1), 69-91
  37. Demirbağ, M., Tatoğlu, E. ve Glaister, K. W. (2009a). Institutional and Transaction Cost Determinants of Turkish MNE’s Location Choice. International Marketing Review. 27(3), 272-294. https://doi.org/10.1108/02651331011047989
  38. Demirbağ, M., Tatoğlu, E. ve Glaister, K. W. (2009b). Equity – Based Entry Modes of Emerging Country Multinationals: Lessons From Turkey. Journal of World Business. 44, 445-462. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2008.11.009
  39. Deng, P. ve Yang, M. (2015). Cross – Border Mergers and Acquisitions by Emerging Market Firms: A Comparative Investigation. International Business Review. 24, 157-172. DOI: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2014.07.005
  40. Drogendijk, R. Ve Slangen, A. (2006). Hofstede, Schwartz, or Managerial Perceptions? The Effects of Different Cultural Distance Measures on Establishment Mode Choices by Multinational Enterprises. International Business Review. 15, 361-380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2006.05.003
  41. Erdilek, A. (2008). Internalization of Turkish MNEs. Journal of Management Development. 27(7), 744 -760. https://doi.org/10.1108/02621710810883634
  42. Fan, Y. ve Jianfeng, Y. (2016). The Choice of the Southeast Asian Market Entry Mode: A Performance Appraisal Model Based on Fuzzy AHP. The First International Symposium on Business Cooperation and Development in South – East and South Asia under B&R Initative. 63 – 66. https://dx.doi.org/10.2991/isbcd-16.2016.14
  43. Gaur, A., Kumar S. V. ve Singh, D. (2014). Institutions, Resources and Internationalization of Emerging Economy Firms. Journal of World Business. 49, 12-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2013.04.002
  44. Giachetti, C., Giancarlo, M. ve Colapinto, C. (2019). Entry Mode Degree of Control, Firm Performance and Host Country Institutional Development: A Meta-Analysis. Management International Review. 59, 3-39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11575-018-0365-z
  45. Gomes-Casseres, B. (1990). Firm Ownership Preferences and Host Government Restrictions: An Integrated Approach. Journal of International Business Studies. 21(1), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490324
  46. Grant, R. M. ve Jordan, J. (2014). Stratejinin Temelleri (Foundations of Strategy). Çev. Gamze Sart. Ankara: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık
  47. Guillen, M. F. (2003). Experience, Imitation, and the Sequence of Foreign Entry: Wholly Owned and Joint Venture Manufacturing by South Korean Firms and Business Groups in China, 1987 – 1985. Journal of International Business Studies. 34(2), 185 – 198. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400016
  48. Halaszovich, T. F. ve S.M. Lundan. (2016). The Moderating Role of Local Embeddedness on the Performance of Foreign and Domestic Firms in Emerging Markets. International Business Review. 25(5), 1136-1148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2016.02.003
  49. Harding, T. ve Javorcik, B. S. (2012). Foreign Direct Investment and Export Upgrading. Review of Economics and Statistics. 94(4), 964-980. https://doi.org/10.1162/REST_a_00226
  50. Harrison, J. S., Hart, M. ve Oler, D. K. (2014). Leverage and Acquisition Performance. Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting. 43, 571-603. DOI 10.1007/s11156-013-0385-5
  51. Head, K. ve Ries, J. (2008). FDI as An Outcome of the market for Corporate Control: Theory and Practice. Journal of International Economics. 74(1), 2-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinteco.2007.04.004
  52. Hennart, J. F. ve Zeng, M. (2002). Cross–Cultural Differences and Joint Venture Longevity. Journal of International Business Studies. 33, 699-716. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8491040
  53. Hennart, J. F. ve Zeng, M. (2005). Structural Determinants of Joint Venture Performance. European Management Review. 2(2), 105-115. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.emr.1500034
  54. Hill, C. W. L., Hwang, P. ve Kim, W. C. (1990). An Eclectic Theory of the Choice of International Entry Mode. Strategic Management Journal. 11(2), 117 – 128. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250110204
  55. Hill, C. W. L. Ve Jones, G. R. (2012). Stratagic Management: An Integrated Approach. 10. bs. Canada: South – Western Cengage Learning
  56. Isobe, T. M. ve Montogmery, D. B. (2000). Resource Commitments, Entry Timing, and Market Performance of Foreign Direct Investments in Emerging Economies: The Case of Japanase International Joint Venure in China. Academy of Management Journal. 43(3), 468-484. https://doi.org/10.5465/1556405
  57. Javorcik, B. S. ve Spatareanu, M. (2011). Does It Matter Where You Come From? Vertical Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment and The Origin of Investors. Journal of Development Economics. 96(1), 126-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2010.05.008
  58. Johnson, J. ve Tellis, G. J. (2008). Drivers of Success for Market Entry into China and India. Journal of Marketing. 72(May), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1509%2FJMKG.72.3.001
  59. Johnson, D. ve Turner, C. (2010). International Business: Themes and Issues in the Modern Global Economy. New York: Routledge.
  60. Juasrikul, S., Sahaym, A., Yim, H. S. ve Liu, R. L. (2018). Do Cross – Border Alliances with MNEs from Developed Economies Create Firm Value for MNEs from Emerging Economies? Journal of Business Research. 93, 98-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.07.001
  61. Kamal, Md. S. (2011). Entry Mode and Subsidiary Performance in Emerging Economies. Mustang Journal of Business & Ethics. 2, 20-29
  62. Kaymakçı, O. (2013). Küresel Ekonomide Çokuluslu Şirketler ve Türkiye’de ki Yansımaları. CBÜ Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. 11(1), 224-249
  63. Kim, Y. ve Gary, S. J. (2008). The Impact of Entry Mode Choice on Foreign Affliate Performance: The Case of Foreign MNEs in South Korea. Management International Review. 48(2), 165 – 188. DOI: 10.1007/s11575-008-0010-3
  64. Kling, G., Ghobadian, A., Hitt, M. A., Weitzel, U. ve Regan, N. O. (2014). The Effects of Cross – Border and Cross – Industry Mergers and Acquisitions on Home – Region and Global Multinational Enterprises. British Academy of Management. 25, 116-132. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.12023
  65. Kotabe, M. ve Kothari, T. (2016). Emerging Market Multinationals Companies’ Evolutionary Paths to Building A Competitive Advantage from Emerging Markets to Developed Countries. Journal of World Business. 51, 729–743. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2016.07.010
  66. Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Saunders, J. ve Wong, V. (1999). Principles of Marketing. 2. bs. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.
  67. Kougt, B. ve Singh, H. (1988). The Effect of National Culture on the Choice of Entry Mode. Journal of International Business Studies. 19(3), 411– 432. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490394
  68. Kougt, B. ve Zander, U. (1995). Knowledge, Market Failure and the Multinational Enterprise: A Reply. Journal of International Business Studies. 26, 417-426
  69. Liu, Y. ve Yu, Y. (2018). Institutions, Firm Resources and the Foreign Establishment Mode Choice of Chinese Firms: The Moderating Role of Home Regional Institutional Development. Journal of Business Research. 93, 111–121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.04.026
  70. Lu, J. W. ve Xu, D. (2006). Growth and Survival of International Joint Ventures. An External – Internal Legitimacy Perspective. Journal of Management. 32(3), 426-448. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0149206305281399
  71. Lu, J., Liu, X. ve Wang, H. (2010). Motives for Outward FDI of Chinese Private Firms: Firm Resources, Industry Dynamics and Government Policies. Management and Organizational Review. 7(2), 223-248. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8784.2010.00184.x
  72. Lu, J. W. ve Beamish, P. W. (2006). Partnering Strategies and Performance of SMEs’ International Joint Ventures. Journal of Business Venturing. 21(4), 461-486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2005.02.002
  73. Luo, Y. (1997). Guanxi and Performance of Foreign – Invested Enterprises in China. An Emprical Inqury. Management International Review. 37(1), 57-70
  74. Luo, Y. ve Zhang, H. (2016). Emerging Market MNEs: Qualitative Review and Theoretical Directions. Journal of International Management. 22, 333 – 350. DOI: 10.1016/j.intman.2016.05.001
  75. Magnusson, P., Westjohn, S. A. ve Boggs, D. J. (2009). Order-of-Entry Effects for Service Firms in Developing Markets: An Examination of Multinational Advertising Agencies. Journal of Internatioanal Marketing. 17(2), 23-41. https://doi.org/10.1509%2Fjimk.17.2.23
  76. Makino, S. ve Neupert, K. E. (2000). National Culture, Transaction Costs, and the Choice between Joint Venture and Wholly Owned Subsidiary. Journal of International Business Studies. 31(4), 705-713. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490930
  77. Malhotra, S., Sivakumar, K. ve Zhu, P. C. (2009). Distance Factors and Target Market Selection: The Moderating Effect of Market Potential. International Marketing Review. 26(6), 651-673
  78. Markides, C. C. ve Ittner, C. D. (1994). Shareholder Benefits from Corporate International Diversification: Evidence from US International Acquisitions. Journal of International Business Studies. 25(2), 343-366. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490204
  79. Mirze, S. K. (2018). Uluslararası İşletmecilik ve Yönetim. İstanbul: Beta Basım Yayım Dağıtım
  80. Mitchell, W. ve Capron, L. (2002). Managing Acquisitions to Change and Survive. European Business Forum. 9, 51-55
  81. Morschett, D., Klein, H. S. ve Swoboda, B. (2010). Decades of Research on Market Entry Modes: What Do We Know About External Antecedents of Enrty Mode Choice. Journal of International Management. 16(1), 60-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intman.2009.09.002
  82. Nitsch, D., Beamish, P. ve Makino, S. (1996). Entry Mode and Performance of Japanese FDI in Western Europe. Management International Review. 36(1), 27-43
  83. Ogasavara, M. H. ve Hoshino, Y. (2007). The Impact of Ownership, Internalization, and Entry Mode on Japanese Subsidiaries’ Performance in Brazil. Japan and the World Economy. 19, 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japwor.2005.06.001
  84. Oliver, C. (1997). The Influence of Institutional Task Environment Relationships on Organizational Performance: The Canadian Construction Industry. Journal of Management Studies. 34(1), 99-124. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00044
  85. Onkvisit, S. ve Saw, J. (2004). International Marketing: Analysis and Strategy. 4.bs. London: Routledge
  86. Öz, M. (2019). Küresel Pazarlama: Lojistik ve Tedarik Zinciri Yönetimi. Konya: Eğitim Yayınevi
  87. Özalp, İ. 2012. Uluslararası İşletmeler ve Yönetim Stratejileri: Global Bir Yaklaşım. Eskişehir: Nisan Kitabevi
  88. Pan, Y. ve Chi, P. S. K. (1999). Financial Performance and Survival of Multinational Corporations in China. Strategic Management Journal. 20(4), 359-374. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199904)20:4%3C359::AID-SMJ31%3E3.0.CO;2-9
  89. Parkhe, A. (1991). Interfirm Diversity, Organizational Learning and Longevity in Global Strategic Alliances. Journal of International Business Studies. 22, 579-601. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490315
  90. Paul, J. ve Benito, G. R. G. (2018). A Review Research on Outward Foreign Direct Investment from Emerging Countries, including China. What Do We Know, How Do We Know and Where Should We Be Heading? Asia Pacific Business Review. 24(1), 90 – 115. https://doi.org/10.1080/13602381.2017.1357316
  91. Phatak, A. V. (1992). International Dimensions of Management. Boston, Pws. Kent Publishing Co.
  92. Piperopoulos, P., Wu, J. ve Wang, C. (2018). Outward FDI, Location Choices and Innovation Performance of Emerging Market Enterprises. Research Policy. 47(1), 232-240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2017.11.001
  93. Qiu, K. ve S. Wang. (2011). FDI Policy, Greenfield Investment and Cross-Border Mergers. Review of International Economics. 19(5), 836-851. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9396.2011.00984.x
  94. Rabbiosi, L., Elia S. ve Bertoni, F. (2012). Acquisitions by EMNCs in Developed Markets: An Organization Learning Perspective. Management International Review. 52(2), 193-212. DOI: 10.2307/41494967
  95. Ragland, C.B., Widmier, S. M. ve Brouthers, L. E. (2015). A Factor Endowment Approach to International Market Selection. Journal of Strategic Marketing. 23(6), 497-511. https://doi.org/10.1080/0965254X.2014.1001860
  96. Rasheed, H. S. (2005). Foreign Entry Mode and Performance: The Moderating Effects of Environment. Journal of Small Business Management. 43(1), 41-54. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-627X.2004.00124.x
  97. Roberts, P. W. ve Greenwood, R. (1997). Integrating Transaction Cost and Institutional Theories: Toward A Constrained-Efficiency Framework for Understanding Organizational Design Adaptation. Academy of Management Review. 22(2), 346-373. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1997.9707154062
  98. Rugman, A. M. ve Collinson, S. (2006). International Business. 4. bs. Essex: Pearson Education Limited
  99. Saaty, T. L. ve Vargas, L. G. (2012). Models, Methods, Concepts ve Applications of the Analytic Hierarchy Process. 2. bs. New York: Springer Science + Business Media
  100. Schellenberg, M., Harker, M. J. ve Jafari, A. (2017). International Market Entry Mode – A Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Strategic Marketing. 26(7), 601-627. https://doi.org/10.1080/0965254X.2017.1339114
  101. Sedoglavich, V. (2012). Technological Imparitives in the Internationalization Process. Management Research Review. 35, 441-459. https://doi.org/10.1108/01409171211222386
  102. Shader, R.C. (2001). Collaboration and Performance in Foreign Markets: The Case of Young High-Technology Manufacturing Firms. Acedemy of Management Journal. 44(1), 45-60. https://doi.org/10.5465/3069336
  103. Siripaisalpipat, P. ve Hoshino, Y. (2000). Firm-Specific Advanteges, Entry Modes, and Performance of Japanese FDI in Thailand. Japan and the World Economy. 12, 33-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0922-1425(99)00025-0
  104. Tang, M. ve Yu, C.J. (1990). Foreign Market Enrty: Production-Related Strategies. Management Science. 36(4), 476-489. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.36.4.476
  105. Teece, D. J. (2014). A Dynamic Capabilities–Based Entrepreneurial Theory of the Multinational Enterprise. Journal of International Business Studies. 45, 8–37. https://doi.org/10.1057/jibs.2013.54
  106. Terpstra, V. ve Sarathy, R. 2000. International Marketing. 8bs. The Dreyden Press
  107. Timor, M. (2011). Analitik Hiyerarşi Prosesi. İstanbul: Türkmen Kitabevi
  108. Uray, N., Vardar, N. ve Nacar, R. (2015). International Marketing-Related Outward FDI Motives: Turkish MNCs’ Experience in the EU. New Policy Challenges for European Multinationals. 7, 305-338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/S1745-8862(2012)0000007016
  109. Walters, B. A., Peters, S. ve Dess, G. G. (1994). Strategic Alliances and Joint Ventures: Making Them Work. Business Horizons. July – August.
  110. Wild, J. J. ve Wild, K. L. (2017). Uluslararası İşletmecilik: Küreselleşmenin Zorlukları. çev. edt. Güler Sağlam Arı. 8.bs. Ankara: Nobel Yayıncılık
  111. Woodcock, C.P., Beamish, P. W. ve Makino, S. (1994). Ownership-Based Entry Mode Strategies and International Performance. Journal of International Business Studies. 25(2), 253-273
  112. Wu, H., Chen, J. ve Jiao, H. (2015). Dynamic Capabilities as A Mediator Linking International Diversification and Innovation Performance of Firms in An Emerging Economy. Journal of Business Research. 69(8), 2678–2686. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.jbusres.2015.11.003
  113. Wu, H., Chen, J. ve Liu, Y. (2017). The Impact of OFDI on Firm Innovation in An Emerging Country. International Journal of Technology Management. 74, 167-184
  114. Xia, J., Ma, X., Lu, J. W. ve Yıu, D. W. (2014). Outward Foreign Direct Investment By Emerging Market Firms: A Resource Dependence Logic. Strategic Management Journal. 35(9), 1343–1363. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.2157
  115. Yaprak, A., Yosun, T. ve Çetindamar, D. (2018). The Influence of Firm – Specific and Country – Specific Advantages in The Internationalization of Emerging Market Firms: Evidence from Turkey. International Business Review. 27(1), 198-207. DOI: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2017.07.001
  116. Zhang, K. H. (2014). How Does Foreign Direct Investment Affect Industrial Competitiveness? Evidence from China. China Economic Review. 30, 530-539. DOI: 10.1016/j.chieco.2013.08.003
  117. Zhu, H. (S)., Ma, X., Sauerwald, S. ve Peng, M. W. (2017). Home Country Institutions Behind Cross – Border Acquisition Performance. Journal of Management. 45(4), 1-28. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0149206317699520