A FIELD STUDY TO DETERMINE THE IMPACT OF JOB AUTONOMY ON PROTEAN CAREER ATTITUDE
- İş Özerkliği, Çok Yönlü Kariyer Tutumu, Öz Belirleme Kuramı, Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli
- Job Autonomy Protean Career Attitude Self-Determination Theory Structural Equality Model
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The flexible, dynamic and permeable business world has changed employee mobility and career definitions today. Uncertainty of working life and mobility of careers have led to the emergence of new career attitudes (Gubler, Arnold and Coombs, 2014). One of the contemporary career approaches that emerged with the effect of globalization is the protean career attitude. Protean career attitude is the subject of many studies in the field as a concept that is usually studied together with unlimited career attitude, but with a different meaning. A protean career attitude refers to a person’s proactive orientation of their career through their subjective assessments and personal values (Waters, Briscoe, Hall, and Wang, 2014). Looking at the determinants of protean career attitude, a protean career attitude needs to be studied together with individual variables.
From this point of view, it was thought that job autonomy, which refers to the individual’s determination of the method, process and other business dimensions of work in the workplace could have an impact on their protean career attitude. Like a protean career attitude, job autonomy is also based on the satisfaction of the individual’s need for autonomy and self-determination. Autonomy refers to the practices of organizations that will increase the role of the employee in the decision-making process in areas where he or she is responsible by increasing the autonomy of the employee’s work (Leach, Wall and Jackson, 2003). Within the framework of self-determination theory, it is claimed that individuals with autonomy are more identified with the job and have more positive attitudes (Deci and Ryan, 1985b). Because work autonomy meets the psychological needs of individuals based on psychological development theories, it can contribute to their development by shaping individuals’ self-determination behaviours (Zhou, Li and Gong, 2019; Deci and Ryan, 2000). With this study, it was thought that when individuals have job autonomy within the framework of self-determination theory, and if the values and orientation of the individual are supported, a protean career attitude will be formed.
- DESIGN AND METHOD
The population of the research consists of teachers working within the Provincial Directorate of National Education in Sinop. The sample of the study is 382 teachers who can be accessed from the research population. The results of the survey data collected by entering online data in the Google drive application with the face to face survey method were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 24.0 package programs. The hypothesis of the research model created within the framework of the theoretical background of the research is that “the levels of employee job autonomy have a positive impact on protean career attitudes”.
The autonomy scale developed by Ilardi, Leone, Kasser and Ryan (1993) was used to measure employees’ levels of job autonomy. The unlimited and protean career attitude scale, developed by Briscoe et al. (2006), adapted to Turkish by Çakmak and Otluoğlu (2012), was used to measure protean career attitude. The Job Autonomy Scale consists of 2 sub-dimensions and seven items as “Feeling Independent and Valuable” and “Being under Pressure”. The Protean Career Attitude Scale consists of 14 items and two sub-dimensions as “Value-Oriented Career Management” and “Self-Directing Your Career”.
Measurement models established to validate structures belonging to the scales of independent and dependent variables of the study were tested by confirmatory factor analysis, and reliability values were also analyzed. During the confirmatory factor analysis, the first and second Articles of the job autonomy scale and the thirteenth and fourth articles of the protean career attitude scale were removed from the scale structures because they had too many modification loads.
- FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
According to the results of the correlation analysis conducted to determine the relationship between job autonomy, which is the independent variable, and the protean career attitude, which is the dependent variable, a high level, a significant positive relationship was observed between job autonomy and protean career attitude at a significance level of 1% (R=0.695). Based on this, it is possible to say that it is appropriate to establish a structural equation model to test the effect of variables on each other.
Within the scope of the findings obtained according to the structural equation model that shows the effect of job autonomy on protean career attitude, it is possible to say that job autonomy has a statistically significant and positive high-level effect on protean career attitude, and 86% of protean career attitude can be explained by job autonomy (Standardized β=0.927, R2=0.859, p≤0.05). Therefore, the structural equality model established to test the research model has been confirmed. There are similar studies in the literature that are compatible with the results of this research, and it has been pointed out that job autonomy is the determinant of variable career attitude (Deci and Ryan, 2000; Houston, 2000; Hall, 2002; Seymen, 2004; Buelens and Van den Broeck, 2007; Segers, İnceoğlu, Vloeberghs, Bartram and Henderickx, 2008; Çankaya, 2009; Seçer and Çınar, 2011).
- CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND LIMITATIONS
In the framework of self-determination theory, it is possible to say that the research model and hypothesis are supported by the analysis results of the research hypothesis that teachers’ perceptions of autonomy will meet their psychological needs, autonomy, growth and development needs, and increase their versatile career attitudes. The student-centred education emphasis of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Ministry of National Education shows that teachers cannot be instrumental in the development of students today with the traditional education method. From this point of view, the self-improvement of teachers both increases the quality of education and allows them to meet their psychological needs within the framework of self-determination theory. The autonomy that teachers will need for self-realization in a way makes structural support necessary. Job autonomy to be given to teachers with specific qualifications and high awareness of the vision, mission and goals of the institution can increase the contribution of teachers.
Research constraints include that the study is conducted by collecting data only from the province of Sinop, with a specific group of samples and with certain variables. From this point of view, researchers can be suggested to test this structure, which is confirmed in different sectors and larger samples, to work on different variables that can mediate job autonomy and multi-directional career attitude and determine the multi-faceted career attitude for future research in terms of contribution to the literature and future practices.
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