THE EFFECT OF THE PERCEPTION OF SAFETY CLIMATE AT WORKPLACE ON PSYCHOSOCIAL RISK FACTORS: A RESEARCH ON SPECIAL SECURITY OFFICERS WORKING AFFILIATED WITH THE ADANA METROPOLITAN MUNICIPALITY
- Güvenlik Kültürü, Güvenlik İklimi, Psikososyal Risk Faktörleri, Özel Güvenlik Görevlisi
- Safety Culture Safety Climate Psychosocial Risk Factors Special Security Officer
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- RESEARCH SUBJECT
The subject of the study is to measure the effect of the perception of the safety climate in the workplace on the psychosocial risk factors of the employees. Zohar (1980), who first introduced the safety climate, expressed the concept as “a summary of all the perceptions employees share about the work environment. HSE (Health and Safety Executive, 2012) also defined psychosocial risk factors as “psychological reactions of the employee to his / her relationships with the work environment, superiors and colleagues, and that negatively affect the work of the employee”. Bronkhorst (2015) conducted a study on 6230 healthcare workers to investigate safe behaviours under pressure, revealing the relationship between job demands and work resources, safety climate and safety behaviour. Idris, Dollard, Coward and Dormann (2012), in their study examining the conceptual framework of the psychosocial security climate and the effects of the psychosocial security climate on job demands and the psychological health of the employee, found that psychological health in the workplace was not given enough attention.
1.2.RESEARCH PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE
The study aims to show the effect of the perception of safety climate on psychosocial risk factors in work environments. In many studies examined, it is seen that psychosocial risk factors are mostly examined within the framework of job demands, job resources and working environment variables. In this study, job control and support variables are also examined. The study is essential in this respect.
1.3.CONTRIBUTION of the ARTICLE to the LITERATURE
In the study, the effect of the safety climate on psychosocial risk factors are examined in 4 dimensions: job demands, work environment variables, job control, and support the first reason for choosing private security duties as samples in the study is that the studies obtained in the literature are mostly evaluated within the legal framework. Another reason is that private security guards were not dealt with much in the occupational groups, where the effect of the perception of the security climate was investigated. In this respect, it is aimed that the research will make an essential contribution to the literature.
- DESIGN AND METHOD
2.1. RESEARCH TYPE
The effect of the safety climate perception on psychosocial risk factors was analyzed by analyzing the data collected through the questionnaire with a quantitative research method.
2.2. RESEARCH PROBLEMS
The main problem is to examine the effects of employees’ perception of safety climate on psychosocial risk factors, which will guide in determining the causes of occupational accidents and diseases in the workplace.
2.3.DATA COLLECTION METHOD
The study data were obtained through a questionnaire form consisting of three parts. Three hundred ten participants were reached in the study.. In the first part of the questionnaire form, there are demographic questions created by the researchers. In the second part was developed by Choudhry, Fang and Mohamed (2009), then in 2014 the safety climate scale consisting of 2 dimensions and 14 questions, whose validity and reliability was verified by Türen, Gökmen, Tokmak and Bekmezci was used. In the third part, psychosocial risk factors scale consisting of 23 questions and four dimensions, which was adapted to Turkish by the researchers, was used. In the adaptation of the scale, a questionnaire form consisting of 28 questions, four dimensions and a yes-no scale, which was used by the Senior Labor Inspectors Committee (SLIC) in 2012 to evaluate psychosocial risks, was used. The translated questionnaire was revised by converting to judgment statements and five-point Likert scale and discarding five questions that were not suitable for the sampling, since it could not get reliability in the format of question statements and yes-no scale. For the validity and reliability study of the scale, a sample group of 200 people was reached.
2.4. QUANTITATIVE / QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
SPSS 22 and Amos 22 package programs were used to analyze the data. Findings were obtained by Pearson correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis.
The research model consists of the perception of psychosocial risk factors (job demands, work environment, job control, support) and the perception of the safety climate (management perspective and rules, colleagues and safety training) that affect this perception.
In the study, three main hypotheses were examined by dividing them into sub-hypotheses.
H1: Management’s perspective and rules dimension, which is one of the security climate dimensions, affect the perception of psychosocial risk factors.
H2: Colleagues and safety education dimension, which are dimensions of the safety climate perception, affect the perception of psychosocial risk factors.
H3: General safety climate perception affects the general perception of psychosocial risk factors.
3.FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
3.1.FINDINGS as a RESULT of ANALYSIS
In the correlation analysis, a low level of negative and significant relationship was found between the perception of general safety climate and general psychosocial risk factors. This result shows that the higher the safety climate perceptions of the workers, the lower their perception of psychosocial risk factors, and this is one of the expected results. When the relationship between psychosocial risk perception dimensions was examined, no significant relationship was found between work environment, job demands and job control. Significant relationships were found between job demands and job control, work environment and support dimensions. When the relationship between security climate dimensions is examined, a very high level of correlation has been found. When the relationships between the sub-dimensions of the scales were examined, a significant relationship was found between the support dimension and the management perspective and rules, colleagues and safety training dimensions. The work environment dimension was found to have a significant relationship with the management perspective and rules, colleagues, and safety training dimensions. A shallow level of significant correlation was found between the job demands dimension and the management perspective and rules, and colleagues and safety education dimensions. A significant relationship was not found between the job control dimension and the management perspective and rules, colleagues and safety education dimensions.
3.2.HYPOTHESIS TEST RESULTS
As a result of the study, the H1b hypothesis was accepted. In other words, it is seen that the positive perception of the employee towards the management perspective and rules will have a positive effect on the perception of the working environment. H2d theory is accepted. That is, when employees’ communication and solidarity with their colleagues increase when their safety training is sufficient, their perception of being supported by their colleagues and management will develop. H1 hypothesis was accepted. Accordingly, employees’ point of view to safety and positive perceptions of safety rules make them perceive psychosocial risk factors at a low level. The general safety climate had a significant effect on the perception of general psychosocial risk factors, and the H3 hypothesis was accepted.
3.3.DISCUSSING the FINDINGS with the LITERATURE
Studies in the literature (Idris et al. 2012, Bronkhorst 2015, Li, Jiang, Yao and Li 2013) show that psychosocial risk factors are mostly examined within the framework of job demands, work resources, and work environment variables. In this study, job control and support variables were also examined.
4.CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND LIMITATIONS
4.1.RESULTS of the ARTICLE
The most critical role in creating a positive safety climate in a workplace belongs to senior management. Employees will develop a high sense of belonging to the workplace and positive attitudes and perceptions towards safety, thanks to the managers who take a human-oriented approach to occupational health and safety activities and exhibit a sensitive attitude towards participation. With the participation of employees in occupational health and safety activities, a healthy safety climate will be created in the workplace, and the effect of psychosocial risk factors in the work environment will be reduced.
4.2.SUGGESTIONS BASED on RESULTS
First, a social support structure in the workplace should be developed, and the effort should be rewarded appropriately. Attention should be paid to the harmony between the job and the employee, and the tasks should be given by their experience and knowledge. Employees should have autonomy in their work areas, and their participation in decision-making should be supported. Communication with their superiors should be facilitated, enabling them to communicate without hesitation. Organizing work schedules and working days following the employee, increasing rest periods between shifts, will reduce health risks and resolve work-family conflict.
4.3.LIMITATIONS of the ARTICLE
The study was conducted only on Adana Municipality security guards. For this reason, it does not seem possible to generalize the results to be obtained over other employees. Another limitation is that only questionnaire technique is used as data collection method employees can manipulate some of the answers because they are afraid of senior management sanctions while answering the questionnaires. For this reason, the use of additional methods such as interview or focus group discussion techniques as a data collection method will enable the subject to be revealed to a broader extent.
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