Vol. 8 No. 4 (2020): Business & Management Studies: An International Journal


Ergün KARA
Assoc. Prof. Dr., Osmaniye Korkut Ata University
Atilla KAYA
Phd. Student, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University
Mustafa İsmet BAŞBOĞA
MBA Student, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University
MBA Student, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University
MBA Student, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University
Birsen KOÇAK
MBA Student, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University

Published 2020-12-10


  • Paternalist Liderlik, İşten Ayrılma Niyeti, Personel
  • Paternalistic Leadership Intention to Leave Staff

How to Cite

KARA, E., KAYA, A., BAŞBOĞA, M. İsmet ., GÜVEL, Şahin, ÇELİK, C., & KOÇAK , B. (2020). THE EFFECT OF PATERNALIST LEADERSHIP ON THE EFFECT OF LEAVING: A RESEARCH ON THE EMPLOYEES OF SHOPPING CLOTHING STORES. Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, 8(4), 118–138. https://doi.org/10.15295/bmij.v8i4.1710





In the literature research, the general differences in leadership research in terms of Eastern and Western societies are revealed. Studies on this basis have researched and examined the leadership tendencies generally used in the West. It can be said that the results obtained as a result of the investigations cannot be generalised and do not have universality. For this reason, trying to apply a leadership tendency revealed in Western societies to an organisation belonging to Eastern societies will not give correct and genuine results. Closing this gap in leadership approaches and minimising its deficiencies, especially the studies and researches carried out by academicians from Eastern society since the 1970s are exemplary. These exemplary studies started with Silin (1976) and continued with Redding (1990) and Westwood (1997) studies to determine the leadership model that can be used in eastern culture (Farh and Cheng, 2000: 86-91). As a result of these peer-reviewed studies, all three researchers produced similar results in terms of leadership tendencies. Studies and researches put forward to date show that organisations in eastern societies adopt paternalistic leadership characteristics more.



The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a gender-based and general relationship between paternalist leadership tendency and the intention to quit in organisations and if so, to reveal the direction of the relationship in question.



It has been observed that paternalist leadership studies related to shopping malls, which are one of the critical sectors of today, are very few and limited, and at the same time, the fact that there are few studies on the subject in the organisational behaviour literature reveals the importance of the subject.





In this study, which deals with the relationship between paternalist leadership style and intention to quit, the quantitative research method was adopted, and the data were collected by survey technique. Questionnaire method was used as the data collection method in the research. Questionnaire method was used as the data collection method in the research. The 5-point Likert scale was used to answer the questionnaires. The evaluation options in the scale are as follows: 1- Strongly Disagree, 2 - Disagree, 3- Undecided, 4- Agree and 5- Strongly Agree. In the last part of the survey; There are questions to determine the demographic characteristics of the employees (age, gender, education, working time in the institution). A statistical package program was used in the analysis of the collected data.



Since the research was conducted in shopping malls located in only two provinces, the results cannot generalise to all shopping centres and clothing store employees. Also, the participants’ attempts to answer the questionnaire during working hours and their fear of people they regard as leaders in the business environment are the limitations and limitations observed in terms of providing data to the study.



The research was carried out with the participation of 400 personnel working in shopping centres in Adana and Osmaniye provinces within the specified sample



In order to determine whether the scales used in the study are reliable or not, the reliability coefficients of the scales were examined, and it was seen that the reliability of the scales used in the study was at an acceptable level. Factor loadings for the scales used in the study were determined, Correlation analysis for the relationship between variables, t-test to determine whether there is any difference based on gender, and regression analysis for the effect measurement, if any



According to the form that constitutes the research model, it will be tested whether the variables differ based on gender before the effect of the Paternalist leadership style on the intention to quit. In this way, within the scope of the research, both the effect of gender will be determined, and the analysis of the variables in question will be made according to gender if there are differences according to gender.



The research hypotheses are determined as follows.

H1: Perceptions in Paternalist Leadership Style Vary According to Gender.

H2: Gender Has an Effect on the Intention to Quit.

H3: Paternalist Leadership Style Has an Effect on the Intention to Leave.





Considering the age of the sample participating in the study, the age of the participants was categorised as 18-35 young people, 36-55 middle age, and 56 and over advanced age. 30% of the participants are young, 56% are in the middle age group, and 14% are in the advanced age group. Again, 42% of the participants are women, 58% are men, and 38% of them are married. Likewise, 13% of the 400 employees within the scope of the research are secondary school graduates, 39% high school graduates and 46% graduates. According to the result of the correlation analysis, it shows that there is a negative, moderate and significant relationship between Paternalist Leadership practices and their intention to quit in shopping mall employees (r = -0.447, p = 0.05).

According to the results of the t-test at the significance level of p <0.05; It is observed that there is no significant change in perceptions of employees against paternalist leadership practices based on gender (t = 3.084 mean = 3.9665 / 3.5657). On the other hand, it was determined that gender does not have a significant role in the intention of leaving the shopping centre employees (t = -1,608 mean = 2,2381 / 2,6681). As a result of the regression analysis, the finding that R2 coefficient, which explains the relationship between variables, is 0,200 and the number of is -0,447 shows that the Paternalist leadership style negatively affects the intention to quit the job by 20%.




The first (H1) and second (H2) hypotheses of the study were rejected as it was determined that paternalistic leadership style perceptions did not differ based on gender and gender did not affect the intention to quit according to the t-test results. According to the results of the regression analysis, the intention of the shopping mall employees to leave their jobs decreases due to the paternalist leadership style, and H2, which is the second hypothesis of the study, was accepted.



It can be said that as the paternalist leadership behaviour increases, the intention of leaving the job of the clothing store employees decreases. This finding obtained in the study is consistent with the results of the study (Özer & Yurdun, 2012) examining the relationship between paternalist leadership tendency and the intention to quit.         



  • RESULTS of the ARTICLE              

It has been observed that there is no significant difference in the responses of the employees to the paternalist leadership style based on gender, and similarly, gender does not play a critical role in the intention to quit. The regression analysis revealed that leadership practices, not gender, play an essential role in the intention of leaving the shopping centre employees. Besides, 80% of employees prevent intention to leave due to other conditions. Employees’ intention to quit is expected to decrease as the clothing store managers display Paternalist Leadership behaviour. According to all these results, it can be said that the paternalist leadership tendency is an effective leadership tendency on the clothing store employees. With these outputs and comments of the paternalist leadership tendency, it can be said that it can be suggested as a precaution against the intention of leaving the company of clothing store employees in shopping malls. In the literature, it has been determined that there are limited studies on the effect of paternalist leadership tendency on the intention to quit. In this context, it is thought that conducting new studies will be beneficial and additive to the literature.


Studies on paternalist leadership tendency in the literature have been conducted to reveal the current paternalist leadership tendencies. It is recommended that different types of management should be taken into consideration in prospective studies and that the study should be developed in the context of other sectors. There are few studies about the organisational behaviour issues of paternalist leadership disposition. Studies to be conducted in this context will enrich the literature and provide essential gains.



Among the limitations of the study, the small sample size and the fact that the study was conducted in the context of a single sector are considered to be limitations because it eliminates the possibility of comparison.


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