Vol. 8 No. 5 (2020): Business & Management Studies: An International Journal
Articles

A RESEARCH ON MEDIATING ROLE OF WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

Burcu ÖZGÜL
Dr., Yıldız Technical University
Turhan ERKMEN
Assoc. Prof. Dr., Yıldız Technical University
Elvan KARAARSLAN
PhD. Student, Yıldız Technical University

Published 2020-12-25

Keywords

  • Organizational Support Organizational Commitment Work-life Balance Civil Aviation
  • Algılanan Örgütsel Destek, Örgütsel Bağlılık, İş-Yaşam Dengesi, Sivil Havacılık

How to Cite

ÖZGÜL, B., ERKMEN, T., & KARAARSLAN, E. (2020). A RESEARCH ON MEDIATING ROLE OF WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT. Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, 8(5), 4364-4412. https://doi.org/10.15295/bmij.v8i5.1630

Abstract

  1. LITERATURE
    • RESEARCH SUBJECT, PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE

An organization needs to succeed in obtaining qualified human capital as well as being able to efficiently and effectively use it in a sustainable competitive environment. At this point, organizational commitment explained as employees’ perceiving the goal and values of the organization, by exhibiting all his/her capacity in order to reach the organizational goals and his/her desire to stay as a member of the organization and to be identified with it, become more of an issue. When the importance of human capital, especially in-service industry, is considered, commitment to the organization becomes even more critical. It has been confirmed by the studies that performance increases with the increase in organizational commitment.

In order to create an organizational commitment, a few premises are needed in both personal and organizational sense. In the literature, the importance of perceived organizational support as one of the factors affecting organizational commitment is emphasized. Perceived organizational support can be described as recognizing the efforts of employees, respecting and welcoming their contributions. The studies have supported it that as organizational support perceived by individuals increases, organizational commitment enhances as well (Yoon and Thye, 2002; Allen et al., 2003; Makanjee et al., 2006; Piercy et al., 2006; Zhang et al., 2012; Ersoy, 2014).

On the other hand, the work-life balance of human capital should be ensured so that it creates value for the organization. The findings of the studies show that as the organizational commitment of individuals experiencing work-life conflict decreases, efficiency and effectiveness also declines accordingly. At the same time, studies are supporting that as the perceived organizational support increases, work-life conflicts of individuals decrease (Foley et al., 2010; Vallone and Ensher, 2001; Aycan and Eskin, 2005; Foley et al., 2005; Akın, 2008; Önderoğlu, 2010). This study aims to examine the relationship between perceived organizational support and organizational commitment with its sub-dimensions in the framework of social change theory, reciprocity theory and side-bet theory. The study was conducted in the aviation industry in the service sector in Turkey. To determine the mediating role of work-life balance with its sub-dimensions in the relationship between perceived organizational support and organizational commitment is also in the content of this study. The sample of the study is composed of cabin attendants, whose work-life balance becomes vital due to the nature of their work. In the light of findings obtained as the result of this study, it is aimed to develop suggestions for managers in the aviation sector and contribute to the literature as well.

  • CONTRIBUTION of the ARTICLE to the LITERATURE

First of all, there is no sufficient number of studies in the literature investigating the mediating role of work-life balance and its subdimensions in the relationship between perceived organizational support and organizational commitment. This study contributes to the literature by examining these relationships in the context of social exchange theory, reciprocity theory and side-bet theory. Second, the concepts of perceived organizational support, organizational commitment and work-life balance are critical issues from the perspective of the aviation industry when the dynamics of this industry is considered, particularly in the case of cabin crew members. In this context, this research aims to help aviation sector managers and human resources department officials understand the importance of work-life balance in the relationship between perceived organizational support and organizational commitment. Accordingly, this study will contribute to practitioners to generate strategies that will handle related problems.

 

 

  1. DESIGN AND METHOD
    • RESEARCH PROBLEM

The research problem is as follows: Do the organizational support perceptions of cabin attendants working in a corporate and well-known airline company affect their work-life balance and organizational commitment?

  • DATA COLLECTION METHOD

In this study, a questionnaire was developed to collect data and test the hypotheses. The questionnaire form consists of three sections. In the first section, a 5-point Likert type of perceived organizational support scale consisting of 8 items was used (Eisenberger et al., 1997). In the second section of the questionnaire, the organizational commitment scale, composed of three sub-dimensions as emotional, normative and continuation commitment, was used with 18 items on a 5 point Likert type of scale (Meyer, Allen and Smith, 1993). In the third section, a 5-point Likert type of work-family life conflict and family-work conflict scale consisting of 10 items were used (Netemeyer, Boles and McMurrian, 1996). All items on this scale are reverse coded. The work-life balance scale is divided into two dimensions as work-family life balance and family-work balance. The sample of the study is composed of 258 cabin attendants working in a corporate and well-known airline company.

  • QUANTITATIVE / QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

In the study, the responses of the participants were evaluated on a Likert type of scale from 1: strongly disagree to 5: agree, and the obtained data were analyzed with the IBM SPSS-25 statistical program. In order to determine which analysis to be applied, whether the data is normally distributed or not is examined first. Since the kurtosis and skewness values remain between +2 and -2 in three scales, it is concluded that the distribution is normal then parametric tests are applied. In this context, exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis are performed for observing the structure and consistency of the questionnaire, whereas correlation and hierarchical regression analysis are used for testing the research model.

  • RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 

H1: There is a significant and positive relationship between perceived organizational support and organizational commitment, (a) emotional commitment, (b) normative commitment and (c) continuous commitment.

H2: There is a significant and positive relationship between perceived organizational support and work-life balance, (a) work-family life balance and (b) family-work balance.

H3: There is a significant and positive relationship between work-life balance ((a) work-family life and (b) family-work balance) and organizational commitment.

H3a: There is a significant and positive relationship between work-family life balance and (a1) emotional commitment, (a2) normative commitment and (a3) continuous commitment.

H3b: There is a significant and positive relationship between family-work balance and (b1) emotional commitment, (b2) normative commitment and (b3) continuous commitment.

H4: Work-life balance has a mediating role in the relationship between perceived organizational support and organizational commitment.

H5: Work-life balance has a mediating role in the relationship between perceived organizational support and sub-dimensions of organizational commitment.

(H5a) Work-family life balance, (H5b) Family-work balance has a mediating role in the relationship between perceived organizational support and emotional commitment.

(H5c) Work-family life balance, (H5d) Family-work balance has a mediating role in the relationship between perceived organizational support and normative commitment. 

(H5e) Work-family life balance, (H5f) Family-work balance has a mediating role in the relationship between perceived organizational support and continuous commitment.

 

  1. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

Findings show that perceived organizational support has a significant and positive effect on organizational commitment. These findings support the current literature (Settoon et al., 1996; Eisenberger et al., 2001; Yoon and Thye, 2002; Allen et al., 2003; Özdevecioğlu, 2003; Bishop et al., 2005; Makanjee et al., 2006; Piercy et al., 2006; Zhang et al., 2012; Altınöz et al., 2013; Ersoy, 2014; Galletta et al., 2016; Afif, 2018; Karadirek, 2020). Also, it was concluded that perceived organizational support had a significant and positive effect on emotional, normative and continuation commitment. These results are compatible with the research findings in the literature (Pare, Tremblay and Lalonde, 2001; Özdevecioğlu, 2003; Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002; Makanjee et al., 2006; Aube, Rousseau and Morin, 2007; Marique et al., 2012; Woo and Chelladurai, 2012; Özkan, 2017; Dinç and Birincioğlu, 2020). W the relationship between work-life balance and organizational commitment is examined, it is seen that work-life balance positively affects organizational commitment. These results are consistent with the literature (Vatansever, 2008; Sakthivel and Jayakrishnan, 2012; Gupta and Gupta, 2013; Azeem and Akhtar, 2014; Korkmaz and Erdoğan, 2014; Nayak and Sahoo, 2015; Dhammika, 2016; Wijaya ve Dewi, 2017; Oyewobial., 2019; Hutagalunga, Soeltonb and Octavianic, 2020; Kesumayani et al., 2020; Wardana et al., 2020).gain, according to the findings of the study, it is seen that work-life balance is sufficient on emotional, normative and continuation commitment. The literature supports these findings (LaMastro, 2000; Dockel, Basson and Coetzee, 2006; Norton 2009; Casper et al., 2011; Agarwala et al., 2014; Ferreira, 2014; Tayfun and Çatır, 2014; Biwott, Kemboi and Goren, 2015; Biwott, Kemboi and Goren, 2015; Choo, Desa and Asaari, 2016; Choo, Desa and Asaari, 2016; Wayne et al., 2017; Choi et al., 2018; Shabir and Gani, 2019). Among the findings of the study, work-life balance is also significantly affected by perceived organizational support, and these results are consistent with the current literature (Vallone and Ensher, 2001; Aycan and Eskin, 2005; Foley et al., 2005; Akın, 2008; Önderoğlu, 2010; Turunç and Çelik, 2010; Ulukapı, 2013; Fitria, Yuki and Linda, 2019).  Similarly, it was concluded that the relationship between perceived organizational support and the sub-dimensions of a work-life balance was positively significant. These results are in line with the literature (Ulukapı, 2013; Yang and Islam, 2020). When the mediating role of work-life balance in the relationship between perceived organizational support and organizational commitment is examined, it is revealed that work-life balance has a partial mediating role in this relationship. However, there is no study in the literature on whether the dimensions of work-life balance have a mediating role in the effect of perceived organizational support on the sub-dimensions of organizational commitment.

  1. CONCLUSION AND LIMITATIONS

4.1. RESULTS of the ARTICLE

The results show that sub-dimensions of work-life balance (work-family life balance and family-work balance) have a partial mediating role in the relationship between perceived organizational support and sub-dimensions of organizational commitment (emotional, normative and continuous commitment). In this sense, this study makes contributions to the current literature by examining these relationships in the context of social exchange theory, reciprocity theory and side-bet theory. The results also draw attention to the importance of work-life balance for managers in airline companies to be able to reconsider the related current problems and to generate strategies in order to handle these problems.

4.2. LIMITATIONS of the ARTICLE

One of the main limitations of the study is that the study was limited to cabin attendants working in an airline business in the aviation sector. Another limitation of the study is that only a well-recognized airline company was selected, no other airline companies in the private sector were involved. Besides, while organizational commitment variable is limited by continuous, normative and emotional commitment, work-life balance is limited by work-family life balance and family-work balance. By the purpose of the study, it is assumed that the prepared questionnaire form is fully understood by the airline company cabin attendants within the study. Accordingly, they responded with sincerity and objectivity. It is also assumed that the selected sample represents the universe.

 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

  1. Adams, G. R. & Marshall, S. K. (1996). A developmental social psychology of identity: Understanding the person-in-context. Journal of Adolescence, 19, 429-442.
  2. Afif, A. (2018). The Relationship Between Perceived Organizational Supports with Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment at Faculty Members of Universities. Sleep and Hypnosis, 20(4), 290-293.
  3. Agarwala, T., Arizkuren-Eleta A, Del Castillo E, Muniz-Ferrer M. & Gartzia L. (2014). Influence of managerial support on work-life conflict and organizational commitment: An international comparison for India, Peru and Spain. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(10), 1460–1483.
  4. Akter, A., Hossen, M. A. & Islam, M. N. (2019). Impact of Work Life Balance on Organizational Commitment of University Teachers: Evidence from Jashore University of Science and Technology. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management, 7(04).
  5. Akın, M. (2008). Örgütsel destek, sosyal destek ve iş/aile çatışmalarının yaşam tatmini üzerindeki etkileri. Erciyes Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 25(2), 141-170.
  6. Allen, N. J. (2003). Commentary Examining Organizational Commitment in China. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62, 511–515.
  7. Allen, D. G., Shore L. M. & Griffeth, R. W. (2003). The Role of Organizational Support and Supportive Human Resource Practices in the Turnover Process. Journal of Management, 29(1), 99-118.
  8. Altınöz, M., Çöp, S., Çakıroğlu, D., Kervancı F. & Keskin, N. (2013). Algılanan Örgütsel Desteğin Büro Çalışanlarının Örgütsel Bağlılık Üzerine Etkisi: Bir Alan Araştırması. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi. 1.Büro Yönetimi Özel Sayısı,1, 149-163.
  9. Armeli, S., Eisenberger, R., Fasolo, P.& Lynch, P. (1998). Perceived Organizational Support and Police Performance: The Moderating Influence of Socioemotional Needs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(2), 288- 297.
  10. Aube´, C., Rousseau, V. & Morin, E. (2007). Perceived organizational support and organizational commitment: The moderating effect of locus of control and work autonomy. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22, 479–495.
  11. Aycan, Z. & Eskin, M. (2005). Relative Contributions of Childcare, Spousal Support, and Organizational Support in Reducing Work-Family Conflict for Men and Women: The Case of Turkey. Sex Roles, 53(7-8), 453-471.
  12. Azeem, S. M. & Akhtar, N. (2014). The Influence of Work Life Balance and Job Satisfaction on Organizational Commitment of Healthcare Employees. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 4(2).
  13. Baron, R. M. & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.
  14. Becker, H. S. (1960). Notes on the concept of commitment. Amwican Journal of Sociology, 66, 32-42.
  15. Bergman, M. E. (2006). The Relationship Between Affective and Normative Commitment: Review and Research Agenda, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 645-663.
  16. Bishop, James W., Dow K. Scott & Susan M. B. (2000). Support, Commitment, and Employee Outcomes in A Team Environment, Journal of Management, 26(6), 1113-1132.
  17. Bishop, J. W., Scott, K. D., Goldsby, M. G. & Cropanzano, R. (2005). A construct validity study of commitment and perceived support variables: A multifoci approach across different team environments. Group & Organization Management, 30, 153-180.
  18. Biwott, G.K., Kemboi, A.K. & Goren, P. (2015). Do employees work life policies and empowerment strategies drive employee commitment? Evidence from Kenyan referral hospital, synergy effect. Global Journal of Human Resource Management, 3(1), 62-72.
  19. Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.
  20. Bontis, N. (1998). Intellectual Capital: An Exploratory Study That Develops Measures And Models. Management Deision, 63-76.
  21. Bragger, J., Rodriguez-Srednicki, O., Kutcher, E., Indovino, L., & Rosner, E. (2005). Workfamily Conflict, Work-Family Culture, And Organizational Citizenship Behavior Among. Journal of Business and Psychology , 20 (2), 303-324.
  22. Buchanan, B. (1974). Building Organizational Commitment: The Socialization of Managers in Work Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 19(4), 533-546.
  23. Bulut, Ç., Çulha, O. Tütüncüoğlu M. & Aksoy E. (2009). İçsel ve Dışsal Ödüllerin Duygusal Bağlılık Üzerindeki Etkisi: İzmir İli ve Çevresindeki Kobilerde Bir Araştırma. 17. Ulusal Yönetim ve Organizasyon Kongresi Bildiriler Kitabı, 21-23 Mayıs. Eskişehir: Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi, 120-127.
  24. Büyükyılmaz, O. & Çakmak, F. A. (2014). İlişkisel ve işlemsel psikolojik sözleşmede algılanan ihlalin işten ayrılma niyeti ve algılanan örgütsel destek üzerindeki etkisi. Ege Akademik Bakış, 14(4), 583-596.
  25. Casper, W.J., Martin, J.A., Buffardi, L.C. & Erdwins, C.J. (2002), Work-family conflict perceived organizational support and organizational commitment among employed mothers. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7(2), 99-108.
  26. Casper, W. J., Harris, C., Taylor-Bianco, A. & Wayne, J. H. (2011). Work-family conflict, perceived supervisor support and organizational commitment among Brazilian professionals. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79 (3), 640-652.
  27. Carlson, D. S., Kacmar, M. K. & Stepina, L. P. (1995). An examination of two aspects of work-family conflict: time and identity. Women In Management Review, 10(2), 17-25.
  28. Carlson, D. S. & Grzywacz J. G. (2008). Reflections and future directions on measurement in work-family research. (Edited by: Karen Korabik, Donna S. Lero ve Denise Louise Whitehead). Handbokk Of Work-Family Integration: Research, Theory And Best Practices, Academic Pres, 57-73.
  29. Choi, J., Kim, A., Han, K., Ryu, S., Park, J. G. & Kwon B. (2018). Antecedents and consequences of satisfaction with work–family balance: A moderating role of perceived insider status. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39(1), 1–11.
  30. Choo, J. L. M., Desa, N. M. & Asaari, M. H. A. H. (2016). Flexible working arrangement toward organizational commitment and Work-Family conflict. Studies in Asian Social Science, 3(1), 21.
  31. Crooker, K. J., Smith, F. L., & Tabak, F. (2002). Creating work-life balance: A model of pluralism across life domains. Human Resource Development Review, 1(4), 387- 419.
  32. Deery, M. & Jago, L. (2015). Revisiting talent management, work-life balance and retention strategies. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(3), 453-472.
  33. Dhammika, K. (2016). Visionary leadership and organizational commitment: the mediating effect of leader member exchange (LMX). Wayamba Journal of Management, 4(1), 1–10.
  34. Dinç, E. & Birincioğlu, N. (2020). Araştırma Görevlilerinin Örgütsel Destek Algıları ve Örgütsel Bağlılıkları Arasındaki İlişkide Lider-Üye Etkileşiminin Aracılık Etkisi. Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi, 15(1), 309 – 330.
  35. Dockel, A., Basson, J.S. & Coetzee, M. (2006). The effect of retention factors on organisational commitment: an investigation of high technology employees. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 4(2), 20-28.
  36. Doherty, L. & Manfredi, S. (2006). Action Research To Develop Work-Life Balance In A Uk University. Women In Management Review, 21 (3), 241-59.
  37. Drucker, P. F.(1993). Theriseoftheknowledgesociety. WilsonQuarterly, 17(2), 52-70.
  38. Duxbury, L. E. & Higgins, C. A. (1991). Gender Differences in Work-Family Conflict. Journal of Applied Psychology. 76(1), 60-74.
  39. Edvinsson, L. ve Malone, M. (1997). Intellectual Capital: Realising Your Company’s TrueValueby Finding Its Hidden Brainpower, Harper Collins, New York, NY.
  40. Efeoğlu, İ. E. (2006). İş-Aile Yaşam Çatışmasının İş stresi, İş doyumu ve Örgütsel Bağlılık Üzerindeki Etkileri: İlaç Sektöründe Bir Araştırma. Doktora Tezi, Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Adana.
  41. Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S. & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived Organizational Support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 500-507.
  42. Eısenberger, R., Fasolo P. & Davis-LaMastro, V. (1990). Perceived Organizational Support and Employee Diligence, Commitment, and Innovation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(1), 51-59.
  43. Eisenberger, R, Jim, C., Armeli S. & Lynch, P. (1997). Perceived Organizational Support, Discretionary treatment and innovation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 812-820.
  44. Eisenberger, R; Armeli, S., Rexwinkel, B., Lynch P. D. & Rhoades, L. (2001). Reciprocation of Perceived Organizational Support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 42-51.
  45. Ersoy, A. (2014). The Effect of Perceived Organizational Support on Organizational commitment: Evidence From The Hotel İndustry. International Journal of business and Management Studies, 3(1), 515-524.
  46. Eser, G. (2011). Güven eğiliminin algılanan örgütsel destek üzerindeki etkisi. Marmara Üniversitesi İ.İ.B.F. Dergisi, XXX(1), 365-376.
  47. Ferreira, M.M.F. (2014), Organizational commitment and supervisor support, perception of procedural fairness, tenure in the hospital: the mediating effect of work-life balance-study in nurses. Clinical Nursing Studies, 3(2), 17
  48. Fitria, Y. & Linda. M.R. (2019). Perceived Organizational Support and Work Life Balance on Employee Turnover Intention. Advance in Economic and Management Research, 65, 503–506.
  49. Foley, S., Yue, N.H. & Lui, S. (2005). The Effects of Work Stressors, Perceived Organizaitonal Support, and Gender on Work Family Conflict in Hong Kong. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 22(3), 237-256.
  50. Frone, M.R., Russell, M. & Cooper M.L. (1992). Antecedents and Outcomes of workfamily conflict: Testing a model of the work – family interface. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(1), 65-78.
  51. Gakovic, A. & Tetrick Lois E. (2003). Perceived organizational support and work status: a comparison of the employment relationships of part-time and full-time employees attending university classes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 649-666.
  52. Galletta, M., Portoghese, I., Pili, S., Piazza, M. & Campagna, M. (2016). The Effect of Work Motivation on a Sample of Nurses in an Italian Healthcare Setting. Work, 54(2), 451-460.
  53. Garson, G. D. (2012). Testing Statistical Assumptions. David Garson and Statistical Associates Publishing, !-52.
  54. Glass, J. & Finley, A. (2002). Coverage and effectiveness of family-responsive workplace policies. Human Resource Management Review, 12, 313-337.
  55. Grant, R. (1996). Toward a knowledge-based theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17(S2), 109-122.
  56. Greenhaus, J. H. & Beutell, N. J. (1985). Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Academy of Management Review, 10, 76-88.
  57. Greenhaus, J. H., Saroj, P., Granrose, C. S., Samuel, R. & Beutell, N. J. (1989). Sources of work family conflict among two career couples. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 34(2), 133-153.
  58. Greenhaus, J. H., Collins, K. M. & Shaw J. D. (2003). The relation between work-family balance and quality of life. Journal of vocational behavior, 63(3), 510-531.
  59. Grover, S. L. & Crooker, K.J. (1995). Who appreciates family-responsive human resource policies: the impact of family-friendly policies on the organizational attachment of parents and non-parents,. Personnel Psychology, 48 (2), 271-288.
  60. Gupta, B. & Gupta, S. (2013). A Study of Impact of Quality of Work Life on Organizational Commitment in Manufacturing Sector. International Journal of Research in Management Science and Technology, 1(3).
  61. Güney, S. & Akalın Ç. (2007). İlsev Arzu, Duygusal Bağlılık Örgütsel Gelişim ve Algılanan Örgütsel Destek ve Örgüt Temelli Öz Saygı. Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 25(2),189-211.
  62. Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L. & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: PrenticeHall, Inc.
  63. Hair, J. E., Jr., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J. & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
  64. Hellman, C. M., Dale R. F. & Worley, J. (2006). A Reliability Generalization Study on The Survey of Perceived Organizational Support: The Effects of Mean Age and Number of Items on Score Reliability. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66(4), 631-642.
  65. Huang, C. C., Wang, Y. M., Wu, T. W. & Wang, P. A. (2013). An empirical analysis of the antecendents and performance consequences of using the moodle platform. International Journal of Information and Education Technology. 3 (2). 217-221.
  66. Hutagalunga, I. Soeltonb, M. & Octavianic, A. (2020). The role of work life balance for organizational commitment. Management Science Letters, 10, 3693–3700.
  67. Hyman, J. & Summers, J. (2007). Work and life: can employee representation influence balance?. Employee Relations, 29(4), 367-384.
  68. Jaramillo, F., Mulki, J. P. & Marshall, G. W. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relationship between organizational commitment and salesperson job performance: 25 years of research. Journal of Business research, 58(6), 705-714.
  69. Kanbur, E. & Canbek M. (2018), Algılanan Örgütsel Adaletin Örgütsel Sinizm Üzerine Etkisi: Algılanan Örgütsel Desteğin Aracılık Rolü, BMIJ, 6(3), 36-57
  70. Kaplan, M. & Öğüt A. (2012), Algılanan Örgütsel Destek İle Örgütsel Bağlılık Arasındaki İlişkinin Analizi: Otel İşletmelerinde Bir Uygulama. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 17(1), 387-401.
  71. Kapız, S. Ö. (2002). İş-Aile Yaşamı Dengesi Ve Dengeye Yönelik Yeni Bir Yaklaşım: Sınır Teorisi. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 4(3), 139-153.
  72. Karadirek, G. (2020). Çalışanların Algıladıkları Örgütsel Desteğin; Motivasyon, İş Tatmini ve Örgütsel Bağlılıkla İlişkisi: Bir Tekstil İşletmesi Örneği. Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli Üniversitesi SBE Dergisi, 10(1), 203-220.
  73. Ketchland, A., (1998). The Existence of Multiple Measures of Organizational Commitment and Experience-Related Differences in a Public Accounting Setting. Behavioral Research in Accounting, 10, 112-115.
  74. Kelly, R. F. & Voydanoff, P. (1985). Work/family role strain among employed parents. Family Relations, 34(3), 367-374.
  75. Kesumayani, H., Eliyana, A., Hamidah, Akbar, M. & Sebayang, K. D. 2020. Boosting Organizational Commitment Through Visionary Leadership and Work Life Balance. A multifaceted review journal in the field of pharmacy, 11(9),312-322.
  76. Kim, H. K. (2014). Work-life balance and employees’ performance: the mediating role of affective commitment. Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal, 6(1), 37-51.
  77. Kinnie, N., Hutchinson, S., Purcell, J. R. & Swart, J. (2005). Satisfaction With Hr Practices And Commitment To The Organisation: Why One Size Does Not Fit All. Human Resource Management Journal, 15 (4), 9-29.
  78. Korkmaz, O. & Erdoğan, E. (2014). İş Yaşam Dengesinin Örgütsel Bağlılık ve Çalışan Memnuniyetine Etkisi. Ege Akademik Bakış, 14(4), 541-557.
  79. Kossek, E. E. (2005). Workplace Policies And Practices To Support Work And Families. In S. Bianchi, L. Casper, & R. King (Eds.). Work, Family Health And WellBeing, 97–116.
  80. Lamastro, V. (1999). Commıtment and Perceıved Organızatıonal Support. National Forum of Applıed Educational Research Journal, 12(3).
  81. LaMastro, V. (2000). Commitment and perceived organizational support. National Forum of Applied Educational Research Journal, 13(3), 1-13.
  82. Lee, S.H., Lee, T.W. & Lum, C.F. (2008). The effects of employee services on organizational commitment and intentions to quit. Personnel Review, 37(2), 222-237.
  83. Lockwood, R.N. (2003). Work/Life Balance Challenges and Solutions. USA, Society For Human Resource Management.
  84. Maertz, C.P., Jr., Griffeth R. W., Campbell N. S. & Allen D. G. (2007). The Effect of Perceived Organiztional Support and Perceived Supervizor Support on Employee Turnover. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 28, 1059-1075.
  85. Makanjee, C. R., Yolanda F. H. & Ilse L. U. (2006). The Effect of Perceived Organizational Support on Organizational Commitment of Diagnostic Imaging Radiographers. Radiography, 12, 118-126.
  86. Malhotra, Y. (2000). Knowladge Assets in the Global Economy: Assesstment of National Intellectual Capital. Journal of Global Information Management, 8(3), 5-15.
  87. Malone, E.K. & Issa, R.R.A. (2013). Work-Life Balance and Organizational Commitment of Women in the U.S., Construction Industry, 139(2), 87–98.
  88. Marique, G., Stinglhamber, F., Desmette, D., Caesens, G. & Zanet, F. (2012). The Relationship Between Perceived Organizational Support and Affective Commitment: A Social Identity Perspective. Group & Organization Management, 38(1), 68-100.
  89. Mathieu, J. E. & Zajac, D. M. (1990). A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological bulletin, 108(2), 171.
  90. Meyer, J. P. & Allen, N. J. (1984). Testing the 'side-bet theory' of organizational commitment: Some methodological considerations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 372—378.
  91. Meyer, J. P. & Allen, N. J. (1987). A Longitudinal Analysis of The Early Development and Consequences of Organizational Commitment. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 19(2), 199-215.
  92. Meyer, J. P., Allen N. J. & Gellatly I. R. (1990). Affective and Continuance Commitment to the Organization: Evaluation of Measure and Analysis of Concurrent and Time-Lagged Relations. Journal of applied Pyschology, 75, 710-720.
  93. Meyer, J. P. & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1, 61–89.
  94. Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J. & Smith, C. A. (1993). Commitment to Organization and Occupations: extension and Test of Three-Component Conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 538–551.
  95. Meyer, J. & Herscovitch L. P. (2001). Commitment in the Workplace Toward a General Model. Human Resource Mangement Review, 11(3), 299-326.
  96. Meyer, J. P., Stanley D. J, Herscovitch L. & Topolnytsky L. (2002). Affective Continuance and Normative Commitments to the Organisation: A Meta-Analysis of Antecedents, Correlates and Consequences. Journal Vocational Behaviour, 61(1), 20–52.
  97. Moideenkutty, U., Gary B, Kumar, R. & Nalakath, A. (2001). Perceived Organisational Support as A Mediator of The Relationship of Perceived Situational Factors to Affective Organisational Commitment. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 50(4), 615-634.
  98. Mowday, R. P. (1982). EmployeeOrganization Linkage: The Psychology of Commitment, Absenteeism, And Turnover. New York: Academic Press .
  99. Muse, L., Harris, S.G., Giles, W.F. & Feild, H.S. (2008). Work-life benefits and positive organizational behavior: is there a connection?. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29 (2), 171-192
  100. Naithani, P. (2010). Overview of Work-Life Balance Discourse and Its Relevance in Current Economic Scenario. Asian Social Science, 6(6),148-155.
  101. Nayak, T. & Sahoo, C. K. (2015). Quality of Work Life and Organizational Performance: The Mediating Role of Employee Commitment. Journal of Health Management, 17(3), 263-273.
  102. Netemeyer, R. G., Boles, J. S. & McMurrian, R. (1996), Development and validation of work-family conflict and family-work conflict scales, Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(4), 400-410
  103. Noor, N. M. (2003). Work-and family-related variables, work–family conflict and women's well-being: Some observations. Community, Work & Family, 6(3), 297-319.
  104. Noor, K. M. (2011). Work-Life Balance And Intention To Leave Among Academics In Malaysian Public Higher Education Institutions. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2 (11), 240- 248.
  105. Norton, J. (2009). Employee organisational commitment and work-life balance in Australia. Carpe Diem, the Australian Journal of Business and Informatics, 4(1), 1-7.
  106. O’Driscoll, Michael P. & Donna M. Randall (1999). Perceived Organizational Support, Satisfaction with Rewards, and Employee Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48(2), 197-209.
  107. Oyewobi, L. O., Oke, A. E., Adeneye, T. D. & Jimoh, R. A. (2019). Influence of organizational commitment on work–life balance and organizational performance of female construction professionals. Engineering. Construction and Architectural Management, 9(3), 1-22.
  108. Önderoğlu, S. (2010). Örgütsel Adalet Algısı, İş Aile Çatışması ve Algılanan Örgütsel Destek Arasındaki Bağlantılar. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  109. Özdevecioğlu, M. (2003). Algılanan Örgütsel Destek ile Örgütsel Bağlılık Arasındaki İlişkilerin Belirlenmesine Yönelik bir Araştırma. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi İktisadi ve idari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 18(2), 113-130.
  110. Özkan, Ç. (2017). Algılanan Örgütsel Desteğin, Örgütsel Bağlılığa Etkisinde Kişilik Özelliklerinin Rolü: Otel İşletmelerinde Bir Araştırma. Çanakkale On sekiz Mart Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Turizm İşletmeciliği Anabilim Dalı, Doktora Tezi.
  111. Pare’, G., Tremblay, M. & Lalonde, P. (2001). The Role of Organizational Commitment and Citizenship Behaviours in Understanding Relations between Human Resources Practices and Turnover Intentions of IT Personnel. Scientific series 22001s – 24, CIRANO, Montreal.
  112. Panaccio, A. & Vandenberghe, C. (2009). Perceived Organizational Support, Organizational Commitment and Ppsychological Well-being: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75, 224-236.
  113. Pichler, F. (2009). Determinants of work-life balance: Shortcomings in the contemporary measurement of WLB in large-scale surveys. Social Indicators Research, 92(3), 449-469.
  114. Piercy, N. F., David W. C., Lane, N. & Vorhies, D. W. (2006). Driving Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Salesperson in-role Behavior Performance: The Role of Management Control and Perceived Organizational Support. Journal of The Academy of Marketing Science, 34(2), 244-262.
  115. Phillips, J.M. & Gully, S.M. (2011). Organizational Behavior: Tools for Success, Cengage Learning.
  116. Quick, J. C., Quick, J. D., Nelson, D. L. & Hurrell, J. J. (Eds.). (1997). Preventive stress management in organizations. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  117. Randall, D. M. (1988). Multiple Roles and Organisational Commitment. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 9, 309-317.
  118. Reichers, A. E. (1985). A review and reconceptualization of organizational commitment. Academy of Management Review, 10(3), 465-476.
  119. Rhoades, L., Eisenberger, R. & Armeli, S. (2001). Affective Commitment to the Organization: The Contribution of Perceived Organization Support. Journal of applied Psyhology, 86, 825- 836.
  120. Rhoades, L. & Eisenberger R. (2002). Perceived Organizational Support: A Review of The Litarature. Journal of Applied Psyhology, 87(4), 698-714.
  121. Riketta, M. (2002). Attitudinal organizational commitment and job performance: a meta‐analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 23(3), 257-266.
  122. Robbins, S. P. & Judge, T. A. (2013). Organizational behavior. pearson.
  123. Sachdeva, G. Sustainable Issues in Human Resource Management, Institution of Electronics and Telecommucation Engineers, Chandigarh, India, 26th November 2017.
  124. Sakthivel, D. & Jayakrishnan, J. (2012). “Work Life Balance and Organizational Commitment for Nurses” Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences, 2(5), 1-6.
  125. Sanchez, P., Chaminade C. & Olea M. 2000. Management of intangibles: an attempt to build theory. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 1(4), 312–327.
  126. Sari, R. L. & Seniati, A. N. L. (2020). The Role of Job Satisfaction as Mediator Between Worklife Balance and Organizational Commitment among Lecturers. Psychology and Education, 57(2), 106-110.
  127. Scholarios, D. & Marks, A. (2004). WorkLife Balance And The Software Worker. Human Resource Management Journal, 14 (2), 54-74.
  128. Settoon, R.P., Bennett N. & Liden, R.C. (1996). Social Exchange in Organizations: Perceived Organiztion Support, Leader-Member Exchange and Employee Reciprocity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(3), 219-227.
  129. Shabir, S. & Gani, A. (2019). Impact of work–life balance on organizational commitment of women health-care workers Structural modeling approach. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 1934-8835.
  130. Shore, L. M. & Tetrick L. E. (1991). A Construct Validity of The Survey of Perceived Organizational Support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(5), 637-643.
  131. Sürücü, L. & Maşlakçı, A. (2018). Örgütsel bağlılık üzerine kavramsal inceleme, International Journal Of Management and Administration, 2 (3), 49-65.
  132. Shore, L. M. & Sandy J. W. (1993). Commitment and Employee Behavior: Comparison of Affective Commitment and Continuance Commitment with Perceived Organizational Support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(5), 774-780.
  133. Shore, L. M., Tetrick, L. E., Lynch, P. & Barksdale, K. (2006). Social and economic exchange: Construct development and validation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 837–867.
  134. Shore, L. M. & Wayne, S. J. (1993). Commitment and employee behavior: Comparison of affective commitment and continuance commitment with perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 774-780.
  135. Sökmen, A., Ekmekçioğlu, E. B. & Çelik, K. (2015). Algılanan örgütsel destek, örgütsel özdeşleşme ve yönetici etik davranışı ilişkisi: araştırma görevlilerine yönelik araştırma. İşletme Araştırmaları Dergisi, 7(1), 125- 144.
  136. Stewart, T. (1997). Intellectual Capital: The New Wealth of Organizations, Doubleday, NewYork, NY.
  137. Stinglhamber, F. & Vandenberghe C. (2003). Organizations and Supervisors as Sources of Support and Targets of Commitment: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Organizaitonal Behavior, 24, 251-270.
  138. Susi, S. & Jawaharrani, K. (2011) Work-Life Balance: The Key Driver of Employee Engagement. Asian Journal of Management Research, 2(1), 474-483.
  139. Sveiby, K.E. (1997). The New Organizational Wealth: Managing and Measuring Knowledge-based Assets, Berrett-Koehlen, New York, NY.
  140. Tayfun, A. & Çatır, O. (2014). An Empirical Study Into The Relationship Between Work/Life Balance And Organizational Commitment. İŞ, GÜÇ" Endüstri İlişkileri ve İnsan Kaynakları Dergisi, 16(01), 22-37.
  141. Thompson, C. A., Beauvais, L. L. & Lyness, K. S. (1999). When work-family benefits are not enough: the influence of work-family culture on benefit utilization, organizational attachment and work-family conflict. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54 (3), 392-415.
  142. Thompson, B. (2004). Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis:Understanding Concepts and Applications. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  143. Tremblay, D.-G., Genin, E. & Loreto, M. (2011). Advances and Ambivalences: Organisational Support to WorkLife Balance in A Police Service. Employment Relations Record, 11(2), 75-93.
  144. Turunç, Ö. ve Çelik, M. (2010). Algılanan Örgütsel Desteğin Çalışanların İş-Aile, Aile-İş Çatışması, Örgütsel Özdeşleşme ve İşten Ayrılma Niyetine Etkisi: Savunma Sektöründe Bir Araştırma. Atatürk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 14 (1), 209-232
  145. Uçar, D. & Ötken A. B. (2010). Perceived Organizational Support and Organizational Commitment: The Mediating Role of Organization Based Self-Esteem. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 25(2), 85-105.
  146. Ulukapı, H. (2013). Algılanan Örgütsel Desteğin İş-Yaşam Dengesine Etkisi: Konya Üniversiteleri Örneği. Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü İşletme Anabilim Dalı Yönetim Organizasyon Bilim Dalı, Yüksek Lisans Tezi.
  147. Vallone, E.J. & Ensher, E.A. (2001). An Examination of Work and Personal Life Conflict, Organizational Support, and Employee Health Among International Expatriates. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25(3), 261-278.
  148. Vanderkolk, B. S. & Young, A. A. (1991). The Work and Family Revolution: How Companies Keep Employees Happy and Business Profitable. New York:Facts on File Publishing.
  149. Vatansever, Ç. (2008). Work And Non-Work Life Balance, and Its Relation to Organızational Commitment and Career Satisfaction”, Marmara Üniversitesi Doktora Tezi.
  150. Wardana, M. C., Anindita, R. & Indrawati, R. (2020). Work Life Balance, Turnover Intention, And Organizational Commitment in Nursing Employees at X Hospital, Tangerang, Indonesia. Journal of Multidisciplinary Academic, 4(4), 221-228.
  151. Wasti, A. (2000). Meyer ve Allen’in Üç Boyutlu Örgütsel Bağlılık Ölçeğinin Geçerlilik ve Güvenilirlik Analizi, 8. Ulusal Yönetim ve Organizasyon Kongresi: 401-410.
  152. Wayne, S. J., Lynn M., S. & Robert C. L. (1997). Perceived Organizational Support and Leader-member Exchange: A Social Exchange Perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 40(1), 82-111.
  153. Wayne, J. H., Casper, W. J. & Allen, T. D. (2017). In search of balance: A conceptual and empirical integration of multiple meanings of work-family balance. Personnel Psychology, (70), 167–210.
  154. Wiener, Y. (1982). Commitment in Organizations: A Normative View. Academy of Management Review, 7, 418–428.
  155. Woo, B.& Chelladurai, P. (2012). Dynamics of Perceived Support and Work Attitudes: The Case of Fitness Club Employees Perceıved Organızatıonal Support and Organizational Commitment: A Study of Medıum Enterprises In Malaysia. Human Resource Management Research, 2(1), 6-18.
  156. Wood, S. J. & de Menezes, L. (2008). Family-Friendly Management, Organizational Performance and Social Legitimacy, Institute of Work Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield.
  157. Wong, S. C-K. & Ko, A. (2009). Exploratory Study of Understanding Hotel Employees’ Perception on Work–Life Balance Issues. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28, 195-203.
  158. Yang, Y. & Islam, D. Md T. (2020). Work-life Balance and Organizational Commitment: a Study of Field Level Administration in Bangladesh. International Journal of Public Administration, ISSN: 0190-0692.
  159. Yıldırım, M. H. & Demirel, Y. (2009). Örgütsel Güven ile Örgütsel Bağlılık Arasındaki İlişkinin İncelenmesi: Otomotiv Yan Sanayi Çalışanlarına Yönelik Bir Araştırma, 17. Ulusal Yönetim ve Organizasyon Kongresi Bildiriler Kitabı, 21-23 Mayıs, Eskişehir: Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi, 585-589
  160. Yoon, J. & Shane R. T. (2002). A Dual Process Model of Organizational Commitment. Work and Occupations, 29(1), 97-124.
  161. Zhang, Y., Farh J-L. & Wang H. (2012). Organizational Antecedents of Employee Perceived Organizational Support in China: A Grounded Investigation. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(2), 422– 446.