THE ROLE OF HYPEROPIA IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONSUMER SELF-CONFIDENCE AND SPENDING SELF-CONTROL
- Consumer self-confidence;,
- Consumer self-control;,
- Tüketici özgüveni;,
- Tüketici özdenetimi;,
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- RESEARCH SUBJECT
This study aims to determine the relationship among consumer self-confidence dimensions and consumers’ self-control and to explore the role of hyperopia in this relationship.
- RESEARCH PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE
Consumer self-confidence is defined as “the level of ability and confidence of an individual to make decisions about the market” (Bearden, Hardesty & Rose, 2001: 122). Self-confidence is shaped by the internal rules that people apply for self-regulation, including consumer behaviour (McGregor, 2011). Consumer spending self-control is defined as the ability of people to monitor and regulate their thoughts and decisions about spending according to the standards they will apply on their own (Haws, Bearden & Nenkov, 2012). It is thought that people with higher self-control can better manage their behavioural responses to stressful situations. There is a direct relationship between the concepts of self-confidence and self-control. The higher the level of self-confidence, the higher the level of self-regulation of consumers’ spending. The concept of hyperopia is defined as excessive control and farsightedness (Kivetz & Keinan 2006), opposite self-control form (Kivetz & Simonson, 2002b) and inverse self-control (Trope, Liberman & Wakslak, 2007). Kivetz and Simonson (2002b) argue that consumers often suffer from some form of self-control problem caused by extreme farsightedness (hyperopia). Hyperopic consumers deprive themselves of pleasure and instead focus on meeting their functional needs, acting responsibly, and doing the right thing (Kivetz & Simonson, 2002b).
- CONTRIBUTION of the ARTICLE to the LITERATURE
This study contributes to the existing literature by investigating to explore the relationship among consumer self-confidence dimensions and consumer spending self-control and the role of consumer hyperopia in this relationship.
- DESIGN AND METHOD
- RESEARCH TYPE
A quantitative research type was used in this study by conducting a cross-sectional pattern.
- RESEARCH PROBLEMS
The research problem of this study is; what is the role of consumer hyperopia in the relationship between consumer self-confidence and consumer spending self-control?
- DATA COLLECTION METHOD
Data were collected via a face-to-face questionnaire which has 46 questions in 5-point Likert scale. Convenience sampling method was used, and data were collected from 698 university students who are enrolled in more than 90 different universities.
- QUANTITATIVE / QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
Quantitative research was conducted, and SPSS 24 statistical software was used for relevant analysis. The analyses used in this research are correlation, regression, independent sample t-test and ANOVA
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H1: There is a positive relationship between consumer hyperopia and consumer spending self-control.
H2: There is a positive relationship between consumer self-confidence dimensions and consumer spending self-control.
H3: There is a negative relationship between consumer self-confidence dimensions and consumer hyperopia.
- FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
- FINDINGS as a RESULT of ANALYSIS
A reliability analysis is conducted for all the variables in this study (consumer self-confidence, consumer self-control, and hyperopia). The results showed that all variables have a sufficient level of internal consistency. In order to check the validity of constructs, factor analysis was applied. According to the results, consumer self-control and hyperopia variables are uni-dimensional. Moreover, consumer self-confidence has two subdimensions. These are information acquisition and processing and social outcomes.
- HYPOTHESIS TEST RESULTS
According to the correlation and regression analyses, consumer self-confidence and hyperopia have positive effects on consumer self-control. So H1 and H3 cannot be rejected. However, consumer self-confidence has also a positive effect on hyperopia, so H2 cannot be supported.
- DISCUSSING the FINDINGS with the LITERATURE
According to the marketing literature; at a high level of self-confidence, self-control appears successfully, while the level of self-control decreases as the level of self-confidence decreases (Geisler & Kubiak, 2009). This result is consistent with the result we obtained from this research. Conceptually, there is a relationship between hyperopia and self-control (Baumeister, 2002; Fujita et al. 2006). This result is also consistent with the findings we get in this research.
- CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION, AND LIMITATIONS
- RESULTS of the ARTICLE
In this research, data were obtained from 698 consumers. After the analysis of the data, the following results are achieved;
- Consumer self-confidence has a significant and positive effect on consumer spending self-control.
- Consumer self-confidence has a significant and positive effect on consumer hyperopia
- Consumer hyperopia has a significant and positive effect on consumer expenditure self-control.
- SUGGESTIONS BASED on RESULTS
Companies operating in sectors that consumers consider as luxury and refrain from spending should be persuasive to sell their products and services by analyzing their internal motivations intensively. This study should be applied to different consumer groups, and more comprehensive statistical methods should be used.
- LIMITATIONS of the ARTICLE
One of the limitations is that data were collected only from students. Besides, in terms of the time of data collection, one of the unforeseen constraints of the research is that it takes place before the pandemic process that we are in and significantly affects our lives. In this study, some variables affecting the concept of consumer self-control are included. In this way, a study has been carried out by providing a contribution to the literature on the subject, albeit limited, and also providing guiding results for practitioners.
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