Vol. 7 No. 2 (2019): Business & Management Studies: An International Journal


Müge ÖRS
Assist. Prof. Dr., İstanbul Aydın University

Published 2019-06-26


  • Organic products, Health Consiciousness, Social Responsible Consumption, Variety Seeking, Price Perception
  • Organik ürünler, Sağlık Bilinci, Sosyal Sorumluluk Bilinci, Yenilik Arayışı, Fiyat Algısı.

How to Cite

ÖRS, M. (2019). THE MODERATING ROLE OF PERCEIVED PRICE FAIRNESS ON THE FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIC PRODUCT PURCHASE INTENTION. Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, 7(2), 891–925. https://doi.org/10.15295/bmij.v7i2.1102


Consumption of organic products both in Turkey and globally has become an attractive issue of today's marketing world with the ever-growing market size. Organic products, which are often associated with “fresh, natural, additive-free and local” in the mind of the consumer, are consumed not only by the product characteristics but also by consumers’ social responsibility, health consciousness and quest for new tastes. In the study, factors that affect the intention of purchasing organic products (health consciousness, social responsibility awareness, and search for new tastes) were put forward and the moderating role of price perception in the relationship between these factors and the intention to purchase organic products was examined. At the end of the analysis, it is suggested that there is no statistically significant difference in the intention of purchasing organic products according to the demographic characteristics of consumers, while the consumer's health and social responsibility have a positive effect on purchase intention on organic products. It is observed that price perception has a negative moderating effect on those relations. Findings show that the organic product consumer’s priority is not the price in decision making and that they are consumers with lowprice sensivity.


Download data is not yet available.


  1. Aertsens, J., Verbeke, W., Mondelaers, K., Van Huylenbroeck, G., (2009), Personal determinants of organic food consumption: A review. British Food Journal, 111 (10), 1140–1167.
  2. Ajzen, I., ve Fishbein, M. (1977). Attitude-behavior relations: A theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. Psychological Bulletin, 84(5), 888-918.
  3. Alam, S. S., ve Sayuti, N. M. (2011). Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in halal food purchasing. International Journal of Commerce and Management, 21(1), 8-12.
  4. Antil J.H, (1984), Socially Responsible Consumers: Profile and Implications for Public Policy, Journal of Macro Marketing, https://doi.org/10.1177/027614678400400203
  5. Arbindra, P.R., Moon, W. and Balasubramanian, S. (2005), “Agro-biotechnology and organic food purchase in the United Kingdom”, British Food Journal, Vol. 107 No. 2, pp. 84-97.
  6. Baker, S., Thompson, K.E., Engelken, J., Huntley, K., (2004), Mapping the values driving organic food choice: Germany vs. the UK. Euroupean Journal of Marketing 38 (8), 995–1012.
  7. Bartlett, M.S. (1970), Tests of significance in factor analysis, British Journal of Psychology, Vol. 33 No. 3, 77-85.
  8. Bavec F., Bavec M., (2006), Organic Production and Use of Alternative Crops, 1st Edition, Taylor and Franci
  9. Bayram, N. (2010). Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesine Giriş, Ekin Kitabevi, Bursa.
  10. Bayram, N. ve Bilgel, N. (2008), Yapısal Eşitlik Modelleri ile İsveç'te Yaşayan Türk Göçmenlerin Yaşam Kalitelerinin Değerlendirilmesi. 9.Ekonometri Sempozyumu, (s. 2-4). İzmir.
  11. Bechwati, N. N., Sisodia, R. S. ve Sheth, J. N. (2009), Developing a model of antecedents to consumers' perceptions and evaluations of price unfairness Journal of Marketing Research, 62(8), 761–767.
  12. Berkowitz, L. Social Norms, Feelings Other Factors Affecting Helping and Altruism. In: Minton, Ann, P., Rose Randall, L., 1997. The effects of environmental concern on environmentally friendly consumer behavior: an exploratory study. J. Bus. Res., vol. 40, pp. 37–48.
  13. Bigné, J.E., Sánchez, I., Andreu, L., (2007), The role of variety seeking in short and long run revisit intentions in holiday destinations, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research 3, 103–115
  14. Bolton, L. E., ve Alba, J. W. (2006). Price fairness: Good and service differences and the role of vendor costs. Journal of Consumer Research, 33(2), 258–265.
  15. Bonti-Ankomah, S., Yiridoe, E.K., (2006), Organic and Conventional Food: A literature Review of the Economics of Consumer Perceptions and Preferences, Final Report. Organic Agriculture Centre of Canada, (OACC) Canada, Toronto.
  16. Botonaki, A., Polymeros, K., Tsakiridou, E. Ve Mattas, K. (2006), The role of food quality certification on consumers' food choices, British Food Journal, 108(2), 77–90.
  17. Buzby, J.C. ve Skees, J. (1994), Consumers want reduced exposure to pesticides in food. Food Review. 17(2): 19-22.
  18. Byrne, B.M. (2010), Structural Equation Modeling with Amos. 2 ed. s.l.:Routledge.
  19. Canarslan N.Ö, Uz C.Y, (2019), Annelerin ve Hamilelerin Organik Gıda Satın Alma Davranışları, Gaziantep University Journal of Social Sciences 18 (1), 457-478
  20. Canavari, M., Olson, K.D., (2007), Organic Food: Consumers' Choices and Farmers Opportunities. Springer Science +Business Mediapp. 171–181.
  21. Chakrabarti, S. (2010). Factors influencing organic food purchase in India–expert survey insights. British Food Journal, 112(8), 902–915.
  22. Chan, R.Y.K., (2001), Determinants of Chinese consumers green purchase behavior. Psychol. Mark. 8, 389–413.
  23. Chinnici, G., D’Amico, M., ve Pecorino, B. (2002). A multivariate statistical analysis on the consumers of organic products. British Food Journal, 104(3/4/5), 187–199.
  24. Chryssohoidis, G. M. ve Krystallis, A. (2005), Organic consumers’ personal values research: Testing and validating the list of values (LOV) scale and implementing a value-based segmentation task. Food Quality and Preference, 16, 585–599.
  25. Combs, B., Slovic, P., (1979). Newspaper coverage of causes of death. Journalism Q. 56 (4), 837–849.
  26. Crinnion, W. J. (2010), Organic food contain higher levels of certain nutrients, lower levels of pesticides and may provide health benefits for the consumer, Alternative Medicine Review, 15(1), 4–12.
  27. Crutchfield, S.R., Weimer, J., (2000), Nutrition policy in the 1990s. Food Rev. 23, 38–43.
  28. Cunningham R. (2002), Who is the Organic Consumer? A Paper presented at Growing Organic Conference, Red Deer, Alberta, March 11-12 2002.
  29. Davies, A., A.J. Titterington, C. Cochrane (1995), Who buys organic food? A profile of the purchasers of organic in Northern Ireland, British Food Journal, 97(10): 17-23.
  30. Dawson, J. F. (2014). Moderation in management research: What, why, when and how. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29, 1-19.
  31. Demeritt L. (2002). All Things Organic 2002: A Look at the Organic Consumer. The Hartman Group, Bellevue, WA.
  32. Denver, S., Christensen, T. ve Krarup, S. (2007), How vulnerable is organic consumption to information? paper presented at Nordic Consumer Policy Research Conference towards a New Consumer? Towards a New Policy?, Helsinki
  33. Dimitri, C. ve Dettmann, R. (2012). Organic food consumers: What do we really know about them? British Food Journal, 114(8), 1157–1183.
  34. Dunlap, R. ve Jones, R. (2002). Environmental concern: Conceptual and measurement issues. In R. Dunlap and W. Michelson (Eds.). Handbook of environmental sociology. London: Greenwood.
  35. Euromonitor International, 2015. Organic Packaged Food in China. Available at 〈http://www.portal.euromonitor.com/Portal/Pages/Search/SearchResultsList.aspx〉 (accessed 20 August 2017).
  36. Faller, A. L. K. Ve Fialho, E. (2009), The antioxidant capacity and polyphenol content of organic and conventional retail vegetables after domestic cooking, Food Research International, 42, 210–215.
  37. Fishbein, M. ve Ajzen, I. (1977). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: An introduction to theory and research.
  38. Fornell, C., Larcker, D. F. (1981), Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 18, No. 1, 39-50.
  39. Fotopoulos, C. ve Krystallis, A. (2002), Organic product avoidance: Reasons for rejection and potential buyers’ identification in a countryside survey. British Food Journal. 104(3/4/5): 233-260.
  40. Fotopoulos, C. ve Krystallis, A. (2002). Purchasing motives and profile of the Greek organic consumer: A countrywide survey. British Food Journal, 104(9), 730–765.
  41. Galak, J., Redden, J.P., Kruger, J., (2009), Variety Amnesia: recalling past variety can accelerate recovery from satiation, “Journal of Consumer Research”, 36 (4), 575–584.
  42. Gifford, K., Bernard, J.C., (2006), Influencing consumer purchase likelihood of organic food. Int. J. Consum. Stud. 30 (2), 155–163.
  43. Goldman B.J. ve Clancy, K.L (1991), A survey of organic produce purchases and related attitudes of food cooperative shoppers, American Journal of Alternative Agriculture. 6(2): 89-96.
  44. Gottschalk, I., ve Leistner, T. (2013), Consumer reactions to the availability of organic food in discount supermarkets, International Journal of Consumer Studies, 37(2), 136–142.
  45. Gough, B. (2007), Real men dont diet’: An analysis of contemporary newspaper representations of men, food and health. Soc. Sci. Medic. 64 (2), 326–337.
  46. Gould, Stephen J, (1988), Consumer attitudes towards health and health care: A differentiatial perspective, Journal of Consumer Affairs, 22, 96-118
  47. Govindasamy R. ve Italia, J. (1997), Consumer Response to Integrated Pest Management and Organic Agriculture: An Econometric Analysis. New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, Cook College, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.
  48. Greene, C.R., Kremen, A., (2003). US Organic Farming in 2000–2001: Adoption of Certified Systems (No. 33769). United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service
  49. Groff, A.J., Kreidor, C.R. ve Toensmeyer, U.C. (1993), Analysis of the Delaware market for organically grown products, Journal of Food Distribution Research, 24: 118-125.
  50. Grunert, S. ve Juhl, J.H. (1995) Values, Environmental Attitudes, and Buying of Organic Foods. Journal of Economic Psychology, 16, 39-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-4870(94)00034-8
  51. Grunert, S.C., Juhl, H.J., 1995. Values, environmental attitudes and buying of organic foods. J. Econ. Psychol. 16 (1), 39–62.
  52. Hay, J. (1989), The consumer’s perspective on organic food, Canadian Institute of Food Science Technology Journal, 22(2): 95-99.
  53. Hayes, A. F. (2013), Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.
  54. Hill, H. ve Lynchehaun, F. (2002), Organic milk: Attitudes and consumption patterns, British Food Journal. 104(7): 526-542.
  55. Honkanen, P., Verplanken, B.ve Olsen, S. O. (2006). Ethical values and motives driving organic food choice. Journal of Consumer Behavior, 5, 420–430.
  56. Hoppe, A., Vieira, L. M. ve Barcellos, M. D.d. (2013), Consumer behaviour towards or- ganic food in porto alegre: An application of the theory of planned behaviour, Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural, 51(1), 69–90.
  57. Howard, P.H., Allen, P., (2006), Beyond organic: consumer interest in new labelling schemes in the Central Coast of California, Int. J. Consum. Stud. 30, 439–451.
  58. Hu, L. T., ve Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural equation modeling: a multidisciplinary journal, 6(1), 1-55.
  59. Hughner, R. S., McDonagh, P. A., Shultz, C. J., ve Staton, J. (2007). Who are organic food consumers? A compilation and review of why people purchase organic food. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 6(2/3), 94–110.
  60. Hung, K., Pen N., Hackley C, Tiwsakul R.A ve Chou C. (2011), Antecedents of LuxuryBrand Purchase Intention, Journal of Product ve Brand Management, 20/6, 457–467
  61. Inman, J.J., (2001), The role of sensory-specific satiety in attribute-level variety seeking, Journal of Consumer Research 28, 105–120.
  62. İnci H., Karakaya E, Şengül A.Y, (2017), Organik Ürün Tüketimini Etkileyen Faktörler (Diyarbakır İli Örneği), KSÜ Doğa Bil. Derg., 20(2), 137-147, 2017
  63. Jayanti, R. K. Ve Burns, A. C. (1998), The antecedents of preventive health care behavior: An empirical study. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 26(1), 6.
  64. Jensen, K.O., Holm, L., (1999), Preferences, quantities and concerns: socio-cultural perspectives on the gendered consumption of foods. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 53 (5), 351–359.
  65. Jolly, D.A. (1991), Determinants of organic horticultural products consumption based on a sample of California consumers, Acta Horticulturae. 295: 141-148.
  66. Jolly, Desmond, Howard, A., Schutz, G., Katherine, V.D., Johal, J., (1989), Organic foods: consumer attitudes and use, Food Technol. 60–66.
  67. Kahn, B.E., (1995), Consumer variety-seeking among goods and services. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 2, 139–148.
  68. Kaiser, H.F. (1970), A second-generation little jiff, Psychometrika, 35, 4, 401-415.
  69. Karabaş S, Gürler A.Z, (2012), Organik ürün Tercihinde Tüketici Davranışları üzerine etkili faktörlerin Logit Regresyon Analizi ile Tahminlenmesi, Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 5(10), 129-156
  70. Kenanoğlu, Z. ve O. Karahan, 2002. Policy Implementations for Organic Agriculture in Turkey, British Food Journal, Vol. 104(3-5), 300-318 (19).
  71. Kesse-Guyot, E. (2016), Studies on the health effects of organic food in humans, Human Health Implications of Organic Food and Organic Agriculture, 12–18.
  72. Kline, R. B. (2011), Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.), New York, NY: Guilford publications.
  73. Kumar, B. (2012), Theory of planned behaviour approach to understand the purchasing behaviour for environmentally sustainable products.
  74. Kumar, S., Ali, J., (2011), Analyzing the factors affecting consumer awareness on organic foods in India. In: Proceedings of the 21st Annual IFAMA World Forum and Symposium on the Road to 2050: Sustainability as a Business Opportunity, Frankfurt, Germany.
  75. Lane, S., Bruhn, C.M., (1992), Organic foods: their demand will remain low. Choices 3.
  76. Laroche, M., Bergeron, J., Barbaro-Forleo, G., (2001), Targeting consumers who are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products. J. Consum. Mark. 18, 503–520.
  77. Lea, E., ve Worsley, T. (2005), Australians' organic food beliefs, demographics and values, British Food Journal, 107(11), 855–869.
  78. Lee, H.-J., Yun, Z.S., (2015), Consumers' perceptions of organic food attributes and cog- nitive and affective attitudes as determinants of their purchase intentions toward organic food. Food Quality Preference, 39, 259–267.
  79. Lee, W.J., Shimizu, M., Kniffin, K.M., Wansink, B., (2013), You taste what you see: doorganic labels bias taste perceptions? Food Quality Preference, 29 (1), 33–39.
  80. Leuba, C. (1955), Toward Some Integration of Learning Theories: The Concept of Optimal Stimulation, Psycho- logical Reports, 1, 27-33.
  81. Lobo, A., Chen, J., (2012), Marketing of organic food in urban China: an analysis of consumers lifestyle segments. J. Int. Mark. Export. 17 (1), 14–26.
  82. Lockie, S., Lyons, K., Lawrence, G., Grice, J., (2004), Choosing organics: a path analysis of factors underlying the selection of organic food among Australian consumers. Appetite 43 (2), 135–146
  83. Lockie, S., Lyons, K., Lawrence, G., ve Mummery, K. (2002). Eating ‘green’: Motiva- tions behind organic food consumption in Australia, Sociologia Ruralis, 42(1), 23e40.
  84. Loureiro, M. L., McCluskey, J. J. ve Mittelhammer, R. C. (2001), Assessing consumer preferences for organic, eco-labeled, and regular apples, Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 26(2), 404–416.
  85. Magnusson, M. K., Arvola, A., Hursti, U.-K. K., Åberg, L. ve Sjödén, P.O. (2003), Choice of organic foods is related to perceived consequences for human health and to environmentally friendly behaviour, Appetite, 40(2), 109–117.
  86. Maguire, E.A., Henson, R.N., Mummery, C.J., FrithNeuroreport, C.D., (2001), Activity in Prefrontal Cortex, Not Hippocampus, Varies Parametrically with the Increasing Remoteness of Memories, 12(3), 441–444.
  87. Makatouni, A. (2002), What motivates consumers to buy organic food in the UK? Results from a qualitative study, British Food Journal, 104(3/4/5), 345–352.
  88. Marwa, G.M., Scott, D., (2013), An extension of the benefit segmentation base for the consumption of organic foods: a time perspective, Journal of Marketing Management, 29 (15–16), 1701–1728.
  89. McAlister, L., Pessemier, E., (1982), Variety seeking behavior: an interdisciplinary review, Journal of Consumer Research 9, 311–322.
  90. McEachern, M. G. ve Willock, J. (2004), Producers and consumers of organic meat: A focus on attitudes and motivations, British Food Journal, 106(7), 534–552.
  91. McEachern, M.G., McClean, P. (2002), Organic purchasing motivations and attitudes: are they ethical? International Journal of Consumer Studies, 26 (2), 85–92.
  92. Megicks, P., Memery, J., Williams, J., (2008), Influences on ethical and socially responsible shopping: evidence from the UK grocery sector, Journal of Marketing Management, 24, 637–659.
  93. Menghi, A. (1997), Consumer Response to Ecological Milk in Sweden, Swedish Agricultural University.
  94. Michaelidou, N., Hassan, L.M., (2008), The role of health consciousness, food safety concern and ethical identity on attitudes and intentions towards organic food. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 32 (1), 163e170.
  95. Millock, K., Wier, M., Andersen, L.M., (2004), Consumer demand for organic foods – attitudes, values and purchasing behaviour, paper presented at Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Conference of European Association of Environmental and Resource Economics, Budapest, Hungary, June 25-28.
  96. Moore, O., (2006), Understanding postorganic fresh fruit and vegetable consumers at participatory farmers' markets in Ireland: reflexivity, trust and social movements, International Journal of Consumer Studies 30, 416–426.
  97. O’Donovan, P. and McCarthy, M. (2002), Irish consumer preference for organic meat. British Food Journal, 104(3/4/5): 353-370.
  98. Onyango, B. M., Hallman, W. K., ve Bellows, A. C. (2007), Purchasing organic food in US food systems: A study of attitudes and practice. British Food Journal, 109(5), 399–411.
  99. Padel, S., ve Foster, C. (2005), Exploring the gap between attitudes and behaviour: Understanding why consumers buy or do not buy organic food, British Food Journal, 107(8), 606–625.
  100. Pagiaslis, A., ve Krontalis, A. K. (2014), Green consumption behavior antecedents: Environmental concern, knowledge, and beliefs, Psychology & Marketing, 31(5), 335–348.
  101. Pallant, J. (2013), SPSS survival manual. 3 ed. McGraw-Hill Education (UK),148.
  102. Paul, J., Modi, A., Patel, J., (2016), Predicting green product consumption using theory of planned behavior and reasoned action, Journal of Retailing Consumer Services 29, 123–134.
  103. Paul, J., Rana, J., (2012), Consumer behavior and purchase intention for organic food. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 29 (6), 412e422.
  104. Prentice C.; Chen, J.; Wang, X., (2017), The influence of product and personal attributes on organic food marketing, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2017.10.020
  105. Ratner, R. K., Barbara E. K., and Daniel K. (1999), Choosing lesspreferred experiences for the sake of variety, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.26 issue 1, 1-15.
  106. Read, D., Loewenstein, G., Rabin, M., Keren, G., ve Laibson, D. (2000). Choice bracketing. In Elicitation of Preferences (pp. 171-202). Springer Netherlands
  107. Riefer, A. ve Hamm, U. (2011), Organic food consumption in families with juvenile children, British Food Journal, 113(6), 797–808.
  108. Roddy, G, Cowan C.A, Hutchinson G., (1996), Consumer Attitudes on behaviour to Organic foods in Ireland, Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 41-63
  109. Rohr A, Lu ̈ddecke K., Drusch S., Mu ̈ller M.J., (2005), Alvensleben R., Food quality and safety consumer perception and public health concern, Food Control, 16, (8), 649-655
  110. Sandalidou, E., Baourkis, G. and Siskos, Y. (2002), Customers’ perspectives on the quality of organic olive oil in Greece: A satisfaction evaluation approach. British Food Journal, 104(3/4/5): 391-406.
  111. Sarıkaya, N.(2007), Organik Ürün Tüketimini Etkileyen Faktörler ve Tutumlar Üzerine Bir Saha Çalışması Kocaeli Üniversites Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi (14) 2, 110-125
  112. Schifferstein, H.N., Oude Ophuis, P.A., (1998), Health-related determinants of organic food consumption in the Netherlands, Food Quality Preference, 9 (3)
  113. Schuldt, J.P., Schwarz, N., (2010), The organic path to obesity? Organic claims influence calorie judgments and exercise recommendations, Judgment Decision Making 5 (3), 144–150.
  114. Silverstein, B., Perdue, L., Peterson, B., Kelly, E., (1986), The role of the mass media in promoting a thin standard of bodily attractiveness for women, Sex Roles 14 (9), 519–532.
  115. Simonson, Itamar ve Russell S. Winer (1992), The influence of purchase quantity and display format on consumer preference for variety, Journal of Consumer Research,133-138, https://doi.org/10.1086/209292
  116. Sobal, J., (2005), Men, meat, and marriage: models of masculinity, Food Foodways 13 (1–2), 135–158.
  117. Sparks, P., Shepherd, R., Frewer, L.J., (1995), Assessing and structuring attitudes toward the use of gene technology in food production: The role of perceived ethical obligation, Basic Applied Social Psychology, 16 (3), 267–285.
  118. Suprapto, B., Wijaya, T., (2012), Intentions of Indonesian consumers on buying organic food, International Journal of Trade Economy Finance, 3 (2), 114–119.
  119. Tabachnick, B.G. and Fidell, L.S. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics. 5 ed. New York: Allyn & Bacon/Pearson Education.
  120. Talhaoui, N., Taamalli, A., Gómez-Caravaca, A. M., Fernández-Gutiérrez, A., ve Segura- Carretero, A. (2015). Phenolic compounds in olive leaves: Analytical determination, biotic and abiotic influence, and health benefits. Food Research International, 77, 92–108.
  121. Tarkiainen, A., Sundqvist, S. (2005), Subjective norms, attitudes and intentions of Finnish consumers in buying organic food, British Food Journal, 107(11), 808–822.
  122. Teng, C.-C., ve Lu, C.-H. (2016), Organic food consumption in Taiwan: motives, involvement, and purchase intention under the moderating role of uncertainty, Appetite, 105, 95–105.
  123. Thomas, T., Gunden, C., (2012). Investigating consumer attitudes toward food produced via three production systems: conventional, sustainable and organic, Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment, 10 (2), 132–135.
  124. Thompson, G. D. Ve Kidwell, J. (1998), Explaining the choice of organic produce: Cosmetic defects, prices, and consumer preferences, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 80 (May 1998): 277-287.
  125. Torjusen ve diğerleri (2004). European consumers’ conceptions of organic food. A review of available research. National Institute for Consumer Research, Professional Report No. 4-2004.
  126. Torjusen, H., Lieblein, G., Wandel, M., Francis, F. (2001), Food system orientation and quality perception among consumers and producers of organic food in Hedmark County, Norway, Food Quality and Preference, 12, 207–216.
  127. Tsakiridou, E., Boutsouki, C., Zotos, Y., Mattas, K., (2008), Attitudes and behaviour towards organic products: an exploratory study, International Journal of Retail Distribition Management, 36 (2), 158–175.
  128. Urena, F., Bernabeu, R., Olmeda, M., (2008), Women, men and organic food: differences in their attitudes and willingness to pay. A Spanish case study. International Journal of Consumumer Studies, 32, 18e26.
  129. Vaidyanathan, R.ve Aggarwal, P. (2003) Who Is the Fairest of Them All? An Attributional Approach to Price Fairness Perceptions., Journal of Business Research, 56, 453-463.
  130. Van Loo, E., Diem, M.N., Pieniak, Z., Verbeke, W., (2013), Consumer attitude, knowledge, and consumption of organic yoğurt, Journal Dairy Science, 96 (4), 2118–2129.
  131. Wandel, M., ve Bugge, A. (1997). Environmental concern in consumer evaluation of food quality. Food Quality and Preference, 8(1), 19–26.
  132. Werner, J. ve Avensleben, R.V. (1984), Consumer attitudes towards organic food in Germany, Acta Horticulturae, 155: 221-227.
  133. Wier, M., O'Doherty Jensen, K., Andersen, L. M., Millock, K., (2008), The character of demand in mature organic food markets: Great Britain and Denmark compared, Food Policy, 33(5), 406–421.
  134. Wilkins, J.L. and Hillers, V.N. (1994), Influences of pesticide residue and environmental concerns on organic food preference among food cooperative members and non-members in Washington State, Journal of Nutrition Education, 26(1): 26-33.
  135. Williams, C.M., (2002), Nutritional quality of organic food: shades of grey or shades of green? Proc. Nutr. Soc. 61 (1), 19–24.
  136. Wolf, M. M. (2002), An Analysis of the Impact of Price on Consumer Interest in Organic Grapes and a Profile of Organic Purchasers. A paper presented at the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Long Beach, California, July 28-31, 2002.
  137. Worner, F. and Meier-Ploeger, A. (1999). What the consumer says?. Ecology and Farming, Vol. 20, pp. 14-15.
  138. Woteki, C.E., Facinoli, S.L., Schor, D., (2001), Keep food safe to eat: healthful food must be safe as well as nutritious, Journal of Nutrition, 131, 502S–509S.
  139. Xia, L., Monroe, K. B. Cox, J. L. (2004), The price is unfair! A conceptual framework of price fairness perceptions, Journal of Marketing, 68(4), 1–15.
  140. Yadav, R., Pathak, G. S., (2016), Intention to purchase organic food among young consumers: Evidences from a developing nation. Appetite, 96, 122–128.
  141. Yue, C., Grebitus, C., Bruhn, M. and Jensen, H.H. (2008), “Potato marketing – factors affecting organic and conventional potato consumption patterns”, paper presented at 12th Congress of the European Association of Agricultural Economists – EAAE, Ghent.
  142. Zanoli, R., Naspetti, S., (2002), Consumer motivations in the purchase of organic food: A means-end approach. British Food Journal, 104(8), 643–653.
  143. Zepeda, L., Deal, D. (2009), Organic and local food consumer behaviour: Alphabet Theory, International Journal of Consumer Studies, 33(6), 697–705.
  144. Zhao X, Chambers E , Matta Z, Loughin TM, Carey EE., (2007), Consumer sensory analysis of organically and conventionally grown vegetables, Journal of Food Science, 72(2), 87-91.
  145. https://www.bloomberght.com/tarim/haber/2098557-90-milyar-dolarlik-organik-pazar
  146. https://www.tzob.org.tr/basin-odasi/haberler/organik-urun-pazar-buyuklugu-90-milyar-dolara-ulasti%E2%80%A6.)
  147. http://www.ekonomist.com.tr/kapak-konusu/organik-girisim-firsati.html