THE MEDIATING EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING CULTURE ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL DEVIATION BEHAVIOR: A RESEARCH IN TURKEY PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR
- Authentic Leadership Behavior,
- Organizational Learning Culture,
- Organizational Deviation Behavior
- Otantik Liderlik Davranışı,
- Örgütsel Öğrenme Kültürü,
- Örgütsel Sapma Davranışı
How to Cite
Nowadays, organizations are under oppressive pressure together with innovations in social, political and technological fields besides globalization. Deviant workplace behaviours, which are often a source of concern in developing or less developed countries, are also added to this situation,the burden of leaders is increasing. For this reason, the way in which effective leadership practice should be done is at the center of the discussions about the subject Authentic leadership is one of the popular leadership styles that focus on positive thinking, such as hope, endurance, patience, optimism, prosperity, and the applicability of these attitudes to organizations. Organizational learning culture guides employees to comply with standard ethical rules and to make efforts for the organization's interests.
The aim of this study is to examine the mediating effect of organizational learning culture on the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational deviation behavior. In this context, a survey was conducted to the white-collar employees of 6 firms operating in the pharmaceutical sector in Turkey and listed in ICI 500. A total of 212 questionnaires were obtained. Research hypotheses were tested by regression analysis. As a result, it has been found that organizational learning culture has a full mediating effect on the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational deviation behavior.
Altunışık R., Coşkun R., Bayraktaroğlu S. ve Yıldırım E.(2005). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri: SPSS Uygulamalı 4. Baskı. Sakarya: Sakarya Kitabevi.
Appelbaum, S.H., Deguire K.J. and Lay, M. (2005). The Relationship of Ethical Climate to Deviant Workplace Behaviour. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, 5( 4 ), 43 – 55.
Argyris, C., and Schön, D. A. (1996). Organizational Learning II, New York: Addison-Wesley Pub. Comp.
Avcı, N., (2008). Konaklama İşletmelerinde Örgütsel Öğrenme, İş Tutumları ve Örgütsel Sapma Arasındaki İlişkinin Analizi. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İzmir.
Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Walumbwa, F. O., Luthans, F., and May, D. R. (2004). Unlocking the Mask: A Look At The Process by Which Authentic Leaders Impact Follower Attitudes and Behavior. The Leadership Quarterly, 15, 801-823
Avolio, B.J., Gardner, W.L. and Walumbwa, F.O. (2007). Authentic Leadership Questionnaire”, available at: www.mindgarden.com (accessed December 15, 2018).
Baron, R.M. and Kenny, D.A. (1986). The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Consideration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.
Bartlett, K. R. (2001). The Relationship Between Training and Organizational Commitment: A Study in the Health Care Field. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 12(4), 335-352.
Bates, R., and Khasawneh, S. (2005). Organizational Learning Culture, Learning Transfer Climate and Perceived Innovation in Jordanian Organizations. International Journal of Training and Development, 9(2), 96-109.
Bayın, G. ve Yeşilaydın, G.T. (2014). Hemşirelerde Örgütsel Sapma Davranışının Analizi: Bir Üniversite Hastanesi Örneği. İşletme Araştırmaları Dergisi, 6(3), 81-107.
Bennett, R.J. and Robinson, S.L. (2000). Development of A Measure of Workplace Deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85 (3), 349-360.
Bennett, R.J., and Robinson, S.L. (2003). The Past, Present and Future of Workplace Deviance Research, In J. Greenberg (Ed.) Organisational Behaviour: The State of the Science, (2nd Ed.) Lawrence Erlbaum.
Berson, Y., Da’as, R., and Waldman, D. A. (2015). How Do Leaders and Their Teams Bring About Organizational Learning and Outcomes?. Personnel Psychology, 68, 79–108.
Beugré, C. D. (2010). Resistance to Socialization into Organizational Corruption: A Model of Deontic Justice. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(3), 533-541
Biron, M. (2010). Negative Reciprocity and the Association Between Perceived Organizational Ethical Values and Organizational Deviance. Human Relations, 63(6), 875-897.
Bontis, N. C. (2002). Managing an Organizational Learning System by Aligning Stocks and Flows. Journal of Management Studies 39(4), 437– 469.
Bowling, N.A. and Gruys, M.L. (2010), Overlooked Issues in the Conceptualization and Measurement of Counter Productive Work Behavior. Human Resource Management Review, 20 (1), 54-61.
Camps, J., and Majocchi, A. (2010). Learning Atmosphere and Ethical Behavior, Does It Make Sense? Journal of Business Ethics, 94(1), 129147.
Cook, S. D.,ve Yanow, D. (1993). Culture and Organizational Learning. Journal of Management Inquiry, 2(4), 373-390.
Cullinan, C., Bline, D., Farrar, R. and Lowe, D. (2008). Organization-Harm vs. Organization-Gain Ethical İssues: An Exploratory Examination of The Effects of Organizational Commitment, Journal of Business Ethics, 80(2), 225-235.
Çokluk, Ö., Şekercioğlu, G., ve Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2010). Sosyal Bilimler İçin Çok Değişkenli İstatistik: SPSS ve LISREL uygulamaları. Pegem Akademi: İstanbul.
Demir, M., (2009). Konaklama işletmelerinde duygusal zeka, örgütsel sapma, çalışma yaşamı kalitesi ve işten ayrılma eğilimi arasındaki ilişkinin analizi. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, İzmir.
Demir, H. ve Songür, N. (1999). Sosyal Sorumluluk ve İş Ahlâkı. Balıkesir Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 2(3). 150-168.
EİEİS (2018), Türkiye İlaç Sektörü, 2017 Raporu.
Ellis, S., Caridi, O., Lipshitz, R. and Popper, M. (1999). Perceived Error Criticality and Organizational Learning: An Empirical İnvestigation. Knowledge and Process Management, 6(3), 166-175.
Egan,T.M.,Yang, B. and Bartlett, K.R.(2004).The Effects of Organizational Learning Culture and Job Satisfaction on Motivation to Transfer Learning and Turnover Intention. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 15 (3), 279-301.
Erdem,F. (1996). İşletme Kültürü, Friedrich Nauman Vakfı ve Akdeniz Üniversitesi Yayını, Ankara.
Erkutlu, H. and Chafra, J. (2013). Effects of Trust And Psychological Contract Violation on Authentic Leadership and Organizational Deviance. Management Research Review, 36(9), 828-848.
Erdirençelebi, M. (2012). Aile İşletmelerinde Kurumsallaşmanın Gerçekleşmesi İle Sürdürülebilirliğin Sağlanmasında Kuşaklar Arası Farklılıklar. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Konya.
Fagbohungbe, B,.O., Akinbode, G.,A. and Ayodeji, F. (2012). Organizational Determinants of Workplace Deviant Behaviours: An Empirical Analysis in Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(5), 207-221.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology: The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218–226.
Gardner, W. L., Avolio, B. J., Luthans, F., May, D. R. and Walumbwa, F. O. (2005). Can You See The Real Me? A Self-Based Model of Authentic Leader and Follower Development. The Leadership Quarterly, 16, 373-394.
Gardner, W. L., Cogliser, C. C., Davis, K. M. and Dickens, M. P. (2011). Authentic Leadership: A Review of the Literature and Research Agenda. The Leadership Quarterly, 22, 1120-1145.
Garvin, D. A., Edmondson, A .C. and Gino, F. (2008). Is Yours A Learning Organization?”, Harvard Business Review, 86 (3), 109-116.
Gefen, D., Sttraub, D. W. and Boudreau, M. (2000). Structured Equation Model and Regression: Guidleness for Research Practice. Communications of the Association for Information Systems: Vol. 4 , Article 7.
George, W. (2003). Authentic Leadership: Rediscovering the Secrets to Creating Lasting Value. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco: CA
George, W., Sims, P., McLean, A. N. and Mayer, D. (2007). Discovering Your Authentic Leadership. Harvard Business Review, 85(2), 129-138.
Giallonardo, L.M., Wong, C.A. and Iwasiw, C.L. (2010), Authentic Leadership of Preceptors: Predictor of New Graduate Nurses’ Work Engagement and Job Satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Management, 18 (8), 993-1003.
Glessner, T. (2016). Correlation Between Servant Leadership and Organizational Learning in a Military Socio-cultural Archetype: Innovation of Strategic and Operational Capabilities. Unpublished Dissertation Arizona: Northcentral University.
Greenberg, J. (2002). Who Stole the Money, and When? Individual and Situational Determinants of Employee Theft. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 89, 985-1003.
Griffin, R.W., O’Leary-Kelly, A. M. and Collins, J. (1998). Dysfunctional Work Behaviours in Organizations. In Cooper, C.L. and Rousseau, D.M. (Eds.), Trends in Organizational Behavior. Greenwich, CT: JAI; 65-82.
Guay, P.R., Choi, D., Sue Oh-I., Mitchel, M.S., Mount, M.K. and Hyun Shin, K. (2016) Why People Harm The Organization And Its Members: Relationships Among Personality, Organizational Commitment, and Workplace Deviance. Human Performance, 29, 1-15.
Hershcovis, S., Turner, N., Barling, J., Arnold, K., Dupre, K., Inness, M., LeBlanc, M. and Sivanathan, N. (2007). Predicting Workplace Aggression: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 228-238.
Hoel, H. and Salin, D. (2003). Organisational Antecedents of Workplace Bullying. (Eds, Einarsen, S., Hoel, H. Zapf, D. & Cooper, C. ) Bullying and Emotional Abuse in the Workplace: International Perspectives in Research and Practice. Taylor & Francis,: London..
Hollinger, R.C. and Clark, J.P. (1982). Formal and Informal Social Controls of Employees Deviance. The Sociological Quraterly, 23, 333-343.
Hollinger, R.C. and Clark, J.P. (1983). Deterrence in The Workplace: Perceived Certainty, Perceived Severity, and Employee Theft. Social Force, 62(2), 398-417.
Howald,N., Lortie, B., Gallagher, C. and Albert, M.A. (2018). Preventing and Deterring Organizational Deviance. http://www.infocoponline.es/pdf/PREVENCIONDESMOTIVACION.pdf
Hsiu-Y.H. (2009). Organizational Learning Culture's Influence on Job Satisfaction, OrganizationalCommitment, and Turnover Intention among R&DProfessionals in Taiwan during an Economic Downturn, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Unıversıtyof Mınnesota..
Ilies, R., Morgeson, F. and Nahrgang, J. (2005), Authentic Leadership and Eudaemonic Well-Being: Understanding Leader-Follower Outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 16 (3), 373-394.
İyigün, N.Ö., Çetin, C., (2012). Psikolojik Kontratın Örgütsel Sapma Üzerindeki Etkisi: İlaç Sektöründe Bir Araştırma. Öneri Dergisi, 10 (7), 15-29.
İlaç Endüstrisi İşverenleri Sendikası (İEİS). (2018). Türkiye İlaç Sektörü 2017 Raporu
Junita,A. (2017). Organizational Learning Culture, Consumer Satisfaction and Employee’s Attitude: Causality Analysis. Jurnal Dinamika Manajemen, 8 (1) : 68-82.
Kamali, M., Asadollahi,S., Afshari, M. and Mobaraki, H. (2017), Studying the relationship between organizational learning and organizational commitment of staffs of well-being organization in Yazd province Citation, Evidence Based Health Policy. Management & Economics, 1(3), 178-185.
Kellett, J. B., Humphrey, R. H. and Sleeth, R. G. (2006). Empathy and Emergence of Task and Relations Leaders. The Leadership Quarterly, 1, 146-162.
Kernis, M. H. (2003). Toward a Conceptualization of Optimal Self-Esteem. Psychological Inquiry, 14, 1-26
Kızıldağ, D. (2018). Örgütsel Sapma. (Ed. Aydoğan, E. ) Örgütsel Davranış Odaklı Yönetsel Yaklaşımlar, Gazi Kitabevi, Ankara.
Kimemia, D. (2013). Organizational Culture and Corruption: A Multiple Case Study of Non-Governmental Organizations in Kenya. Doctoral Dissertation, Virginia Commonwealth University.
Kindt CA (2008). Relationship between organizational climate and job satisfaction among middle school principals. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Florida, Central Florida.
Kontoghiorghes, C., Awbre, S.M. and Feurig, P.L. (2005). Examining the Relationship Between Learning Organization Characteristics and Change Adaptation, Innovation, and Organizational Performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 16 (2), 185-212.
KPMG, (2018). İlaç, Sektörel Bakış. www.kpmg.com.tr
Lawrence, T. B. and Robinson, S. L. (2007). Ain’t Misbehavin: Workplace Deviance as Organizational Resistance. Journal of Management, 33(3), 378-394.
Lee, H. and Choi, B. (2003). Knowledge Management Enablers, Processes, And Organizational Performance: An İntegrative View and Empirical Examination, Journal of Management Information Systems, 20 (1), 179-228.
Lipshitz, R., Popper, M. and Friedman, V. J. (2002). A multifaceted Model of Organizational Learning. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 38(1), 78-98.
Liu, Y., Fuller, B., Hester, K.,Bennett,R.J. and Dickerson, M.S. (2016). Linking Authentic Leadership to Subordinate Behaviors. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, . 39 ( 2), 218-233.
Lok, P. and Crawford, J. (2001). Antecedents of Organizational Commitment and The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 16(8), 594-613.
Lopez, S. P., Peon, J. M. M. and Ordas, C. J. V. (2005). Organizational Learning as a Determining Factor in Business Performance. The Learning Organization, 12(3), 227-245.
Luthans, F. and Avolio, B. (2003) Authentic Leadership Development’, In Cameron, K. S., Dutton, J. E. ve Quinn, R. E. (Eds.), Positive Organizational Scholarship, San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc., 241-25
Marsick, V. J. and Watkins, K.E. (2003). Demonstrating the Value of an Organization’s Learning Culture: The Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 5(2), 132–151.
Martin, L. E., Brock, M. E., Buckley, M. R., ve Ketchen, D. J. (2010). Time Banditry: Examining the Purloining of Time in Organizations. Human Resource Management Review, 20(1), 26-34.
Maurer, T. J. and Lippstreu, M. (2008). Who Will be Committed to An Organization That Provides Support for Employee Development? Journal of Management Development, 27(3), 328-347.
May, D., Chan, A., Hodges, T.,ve Avolio, B., (2003) Developing The Moral Component of Authentic Leadership, Organizational Dynamics, 32 (3), 247–260.
Mazur, J. and Zaborek, P., (2016). Organizational Culture and Open İnnovation Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise (SMEs) in Poland. Int. J. Manag. Econ. 51 (1), 104–138.
Mazutis, D. and Slawinski N. (2008). Leading Organizational Learning Through Authentic Dialogue. Management Learning, 39(4), 437–456.
Meyer, J. P. and Allen, N. J. (1997). Commitment in the Workplace: Theory, Research, and Application, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
McEvory, M. G. (1997). Organizational Change and Outdoor Management Education. Human Resource Management, 36(2), 235-250.
McGill, M. E. and Slocum, Jr., J. W. (1992). Management Practices in Learning Organizations. Organizational Dynamics, 21(1), 4-17.
Milić, B., Nešić,L., Kuzmanović,B. and Delić, M. (2017). The Influence of Authentic Leadership on The Learning Organization at the Organizational Level: The Mediating Role of Employees’ Affective Commitment. Journal for East European Management Studies. (22) 1, 9-38.
Murphy, K.R. (1993). Honesty in The Workplace. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole
Narayanan, K. and Murphy, S.E. (2017). Conceptual Framework on Workplace Deviance Behaviour: A Review. Journal of Human Values. 23(3) 1–16
Nevis, E.C., Dibella, A.J. ve Gould, J.M. (1995). Understanding organizations as learning system. Sloan Management Review, 36 (2), 73-85.
Nonaka, I. (1991). The Knowledge-Creating Company. Harvard Business Review, 69(6), 96-104
Nonaka, I., Toyama, R., Hirata,T. and Ebrary, I. (2008). Managing Flow: A Process Theory Of The Knowledge-Based Firm. Palgrave Macmillan, NY.
Noruzy, A., Dalfard, V. M., Azhdari, B., Nazari-Shirkouhi, S. and Rezazadeh, A. (2013). Relations Between Transformational Leadership, Organizational Learning, Knowledge Management, Organizational Innovation, and Organizational Performance: An Empirical İnvestigation of Manufacturing Firms. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 64, 1073–1085.
Obeng, K. and Ugboro, I. (2003). Organizational Commitment Among Public Transit Employees: An Assessment Study. Transportation Quarterly. 57(2), 83-98.
O’Leary-Kelly, A. M., Griffin, R. W. and Glew, D. J. (1996). Organization-Motivated Aggression: A Research Framework. Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 225- 253.
Oliphant, B. F. and Oliphant, G. C. (2001). Using A Behavior-Based Method to Identfy and Reduce Employee Theft. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 29 (10), 442-451.
Omar, F., Halim, F., Zainah, A. and Farhadi, H. (2011). Stress and Job Satisfaction as Antecedents of Workplace Deviant Behavior. World Applied Sciences Journal, 12, 46-51.
Ökmen, S., Elçi, M., Murat, G. ve Yılmaz, Y. (2018). The Impact of Authentıc Leadershıp on Organızatıonal Learnıng Capacıty. Journal of Global Strategic Management, 12 (1), 57-66.
Ötken,B. ve Beşer, H.S.G. (2017). The Effect of Authentıc Leadershıp on Organızatıonal Learnıng Provıdıng Organızatıon The Abılıty to Adapt Quıckly and Convenıently To Changıng Cırcumstances. Press Academia Procedia, 3(1), 457 – 471.
Pan, S. L. and Scarbrough, H., (1999). Knowledge Management in Practice: An Exploratory Case Study. Tech. Anal. Strat. Manag. 11 (3), 359–374.
Paul,A. K. and Anantharaman, R. N. (2004). Influence of HRM practices on Organizational Commitment: A Study Among Software Professionals in India. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 15(1), 77-88.
Popper, M. and Lipshitz, R. (2000). Organizational Learning Mechanisms, Culture, and Feasibilit. Management Learning, 31(2), 181-196.
Puffer, M.S. (1987). Prosocial Behavior, Noncompliant Behavior, and Work Performance Among Commission Salespeople. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72( 4), 615-621.
Pulay, G. (2014). Preventing Corruption by Strengthening Organisational Integrity. Public Finance Quarterly, 59(2), 133-149.
Rafiee, M., Hoveida, R. and Rajaeipoor, S. (2015). The Relationship of the Deviant Workplace Behavior with the Organizational Justice and Staff Development in the Universities of Tehran. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 5(1), 126-140.
Rijal, S. (2016). The Inﬂuence of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Culture on Learning Organization: A Comparative Analysis Of The It Sector. J. Admin. Bus. Stud. 2 (3), 121–129.
Robinson, S. L. and Bennet, R. J. (1995). A Typology of Deviant Workplace Behaviors: A Multidimensional Scaling study. Academy of Management Journal, 38(2), 555-572
Robinson, S. L.,ve O'Leary-Kelly, A. M. (1998). Monkey See, Monkey Do: The İnfluence of Work Groups on The Antisocial Behavior of Employees. Academy of Management Journal, 41(6), 658-672.
Robinson,S.L. and Greenberg, J. (1998). Employees Behaving Badly: Dimensions, Determinants and Dilemmas in the Study of Workplace Behaviours. In C. L. Cooper & D. M. Rousseau (Eds.), Trends in Organizational Behavior (pp. 1-30). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Rose,R., Kumar, N. and Pak, O.G. (2009). The Effect Of Organizational Learning On Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction And Work Performance. The Journal Of Applied Business Research, 25 (6), 55-66.
Sallıtepe, H. (2017). The Effect of Authentic Leadership on Organizational Learning Providing Organization The Ability to Adapt Quickly and Convenıently to Changing Circumstances. Unpublished Master Thesis, Yeditepe University Institute Of Social Sciences, İstanbul.
Saruhan, Ş.C. ve Özdemirci, A. (2011). Bilim, Felsefe ve Metodoloji. Beta Yayınları. İstanbul.
Schneider, B. E. (1991). Put Up and Shut Up: Workplace Sexual Assaults. Gender & Society, 5(4), 533-548.
Schein, E.H. (2004). Organizational Culture and Leadership, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Shuck, B. and Wollard, K. (2010). Employee Engagement and HRD: A Seminal Review of the Foundations. Human Resource Development Review, 9, 89-110.
Schwandt, D. R. and Marquardt, M. J. (2000). Organizational Learning From World-Class Theories to Global Best Practices, CRC Press LLC, Florida.
Shahid, B. and Ahmad, I. (2016). The Impact of Organizational Learning on Organizational Corruption and the Deviant Workplace Behavior: The Case Study of Public Sector Organizations in Pakistan. NUML International Journal of Business & Management 11(2), 50-67.
Shamir, B. and Eilam, G. (2005). What’s Your Story? A Life-Stories Approach to Authentic Leadership Development. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(3), 395- 417.
Sobel, M.E. (1982). Asymptotic Confidence Intervals for Indirect Effects in Structural Equation Models. Sociological Methodology, 13, 290-321.
Sorakraikitikul, M. and Siengthai, S. (2014). Organizational learning culture and workplace spirituality Is knowledge-sharing behaviour a missing link? The Learning Organization, 21(3), 175-19.
Somech, A. and Drach-Zahavy, A. (2004). Exploring Organizational Citizenship Behaviour from An Organizational Perspective: The Relationship Between Organizational Learning and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77, 281–298
Spector, P.E. and Fox, S. (2005). A Model of Counterproductive Work Behavior. (Eds, Fox, S. ve Spector, P.E. ) Counterproductive Workplace Behavior: Investigations of Actors and Targets, APA, Washington, DC.
Spıtzek, H., (2009). Organisational Structures and Processes. The Development of Governance Structures for Corporate Responsibility. Corporate Governance. 9 (4).
Svensson, G. and Wood, G. (2004). Corporate Ethics and Trust in Intra-Corporate Relationships: An in-Depth and Longitudinal Case Description. Employee Relations, 26 (3), 320-336.
Tabak, A., Polat, M., Coşar, S. ve Türköz, T. (2012). Otantik Liderlik Ölçeği:Güvenirlik ve Geçerlik Çalışması. "İş, Güç" Endüstri İlişkileri ve İnsan Kaynakları Dergisi, 14 (4), 89-106.
Tabak, A., Polat, M., Coşar, S. ve Türköz, T. (2013). A Research on the Consequences of Authentic Leadership. Boğaziçi Journal Review of Social, Economic and Administrative Studies, 27( 2), 65-88.
Tütüncü, Ö., Küçükusta, D., Kiremitçi, İ., Dalmış, K.A., Tekin, F.A., Yazgan, M., Şen, A., Bozalan, E., (2008). Hastanelerde Örgütsel Sapma Davranışının Analizi, 5. Ulusal Sağlık Kuruluşları Yönetimi Kongresi, Muğla.
TOBB (2008). Türkiye İlaç Sanayi Sektör Raporu.
Vardi Y. and Wiener, Y. (1996). Misbehavior in organizations: a motivational framework. Organization Science, 7(2), 151-165.
Verbos, A., Gerard, J., Forshey, P., Harding, C., and Miller, J. (2007). The Positive Ethical Organization: Enacting A Living Code of Ethics and Ethical Organizational İdentity. Journal of Business Ethics, 76(1),17-33.
Walumbwa, F.O., Luthans, F., Avey, J.B. ve Oke, A. (2011). Authentically Leading Groups: The Mediating Role of Collective Psychological Capital and Trust. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31 (1), 4-24.
Wang, X .(2007). Learning, Job Satisfaction and Commitment: An Empirical Study of Organizations in China. Chinese Management Studies, 1(3), 167-179.
Watkins, K. E. and Marsick, V. J. (1993). Sculpting the Learning Organization: Lessons in The Art and Science of Systemic Change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Watkins, K. E. and Marsick, V. J. (1996). In action: Creating the learning organization. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development.
Word, J. (2012). Engaging Work As a Calling: Examining The Link Between Spirituality and Job İnvolvement. Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, 9(2), 147-166.
Wu, F. and Cavusgil, S. T. (2006). Organizational Learning, Journal of Business Commitment, And Joint Value Creation in Interfirm Relationship. Research, 59(1), 81-89.
Yaşbay, H. (2011). Otantik Liderlik ve Örgütsel Bağlılık İlişkisi, Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İzmir.
Yaşlıoğlu, M. M. (2017). Sosyal Bilimlerde Faktör Analizi ve Geçerlilik: Keşfedici ve Doğrulayıcı Faktör Analizlerinin Kullanılması, İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, Cilt: 46, Özel Sayı 2017, 74-85.
Yeo, R.K. (2005). Revisiting the Roots of Learning Organization: A Synthesis of The Learning Organization Literature, The Learning Organization, 12 (4), 368-382.
Zagoršek, H., Dimovski, V. and Škerlavaj, M. (2009). Transactional and Transformational Leadership Impacts on Organizational Learning. Journal for East European Management Studies, 14(2), 145-165.