Vol. 7 No. 1 (2019): Business & Management Studies: An International Journal


Kumru UYAR

Published 2019-03-21


  • Retail Therapy,
  • Compensatory Consumption,
  • Emotional Regulation Consumption,
  • Five Factor Personality
  • Perakende Terapi,
  • Telafi Edici Tüketim,
  • Duygu Durum Düzenleyici Tüketim,
  • Beş Faktör Kişilik

How to Cite

UYAR, K. (2019). RETAIL THERAPY. Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, 7(1), 496-513. https://doi.org/10.15295/bmij.v7i1.1013


The primary objective of this study is to define the concept of the therapy study which is new in Turkish literature. Another aim of the study is to reveal whether or not retail therapy differs in personality characteristics. In the Turkish literature, no studies on retail therapy have been found. The personality traits of the study were determined based on the 5 factor personality traits. The research was carried out by simple random sampling method and data from 386 participants were collected by face to face survey method. In this study, the Therapy Consumption Scale and the Five Factor Personality Scale were used as data collection tools. The collected data were analyzed with SPSS 22 package program. According to the findings, it was determined that retail therapy differed according to neurotic and honest personality traits. According to these results, it can be said that individuals who have more neurotic and honest personality traits perceive more positively against retail therapy. In the other personality traits, no statistical difference was found in terms of retail consumption. It is expected that the study will gain a new concept in Turkish literature and the subject will be enriched with other studies in the future.


Download data is not yet available.


  1. Andrade, E.B. (2005). Behavioural consequences of affect: combining evaluative and regulatory mechanisms, Journal of Consumer Research, 32 (12), 355-362.
  2. Atalay, S., & Meloy, M. (2006). When the going gets tough, the tough go shopping: An examination of self-gifting behavior. ACR North American Advances, 258-260.
  3. Atalay, A. S., & Meloy, M. G. (2011). Retail therapy: A strategic effort to improve mood. Psychology & Marketing, 28(6), 638-659.
  4. Atkinson, R. L., Atkinson, R., & Hilgard, E. (1995). Psikolojiye Giriş I-II. K. Atakay vd. (Çev.). İstanbul: Sosyal Yayınları.
  5. Babin, B. J., Darden, W. R., & Griffin, M. (1994). Work and/or fun: measuring hedonic and utilitarian shopping value. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(4), 644-656.
  6. Bacanlı, H., İlhan, T., & Aslan, S. (2009). Beş Faktör Kuramına Dayalı Bir Kişilik Ölçeğinin Geliştirilmesi: Sıfatlara Dayalı Kişilik Testi (SDKT). Türk Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 7(2), 261-279.
  7. Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The big five personality dimensions and job performance: a meta‐analysis. Personnel psychology, 44(1), 1-26.
  8. Basım, H. N., Çetin, F., & Tabak, A. (2009). Beş faktör kişilik özelliklerinin kişilerarası çatışma çözme yaklaşımlarıyla ilişkisi. Türk Psikoloji Dergisi, 24(63), 20-34.
  9. Benet-Martinez, V., & John, O. P. (1998). Los Cinco Grandes across cultures and ethnic groups: Multitrait-multimethod analyses of the Big Five in Spanish and English. Journal of personality and social psychology, 75(3), 729-750.
  10. Block, J. (1995). A contrarian view of the five-factor approach to personality description. Psychological bulletin, 117(2), 187-215.
  11. Bui, M., & Kemp, E., (2013). E-tail emotion regulation: examining online hedonic product purchases, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 41(2), 155-170.
  12. Costa Jr, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Four ways five factors are basic. Personality and Individual Differences, 13(6), 653-665.
  13. Digman, J. M. (1990). Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. Annual review of psychology, 41(1), 417-440.
  14. Doğan, T. (2012). Beş faktör kişilik özellikleri ve öznel iyi oluş. Doğuş Üniversitesi Dergisi, 14(1), 56-64.
  15. Faber, R. J., & Christenson, G. A. (1996). In the mood to buy: Differences in the mood states experienced by compulsive buyers and other consumers. Psychology & Marketing, 13(8), 803-819.
  16. Gardner, M. P., & Rook, D. W. (1988). Effects of impulse purchases on consumers' affective states. Advances in Consumer Research, 15, 127-130.
  17. Goldberg, L. R. (1993). The structure of phenotypic personality traits. American Psychologist, 48(1), 26-34.
  18. Gökdeniz, İ., Durukan, T., & Bozacı, İ. (2012). Müşterinin firmaya şikâyet etme eğilimini etkileyen bireysel faktörler üzerine uygulamalı bir çalışma. Aksaray Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 4(1), 17-36.
  19. Jamal, F. D., Chudry, F. & Al-Marri, M. (2006). Profiling consumers: A study of Qatari consumers’ shopping motivations. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 13(1), 67-80.
  20. John, O.P. (1990) The “Big Five” factor taxonomy: Dimensions of personality in the natural language and in questionnaires. In: Pervin, L.A., Ed., Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, Guilford Press, New York, 1990, 66-100.
  21. Kacen, J. J. (1998). Retail therapy: Consumers’ shopping cures for negative moods. Advances in Consumer Research, 25(1), 75-87.
  22. Kacen, J. J., & Friese, S. (1999). An exploration of mood-regulating consumer buying behavior. European Advances in Consumer Research, 4(1), 75-76.
  23. Kang, M., & Johnson, K. K. (2010). Let’s shop! Exploring the experiences of therapy shoppers. Journal of Global Fashion Marketing, 1(2), 71-79.
  24. Kang, M., & Johnson, K. K. P. (2011). Retail Therapy: Scale Development. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 29(1), 3-19.
  25. Kemp, E., & Kopp, S. W. (2011). Emotion regulation consumption: When feeling better is the aim. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 10(1), 1-7.
  26. Kim, S., & Gal, D. (2014). From compensatory consumption to adaptive consumption: The role of self-acceptance in resolving self-deficits. Journal of Consumer Research, 41(2), 526-542.
  27. Kim, S., & Rucker, D. D. (2012). Bracing for the psychological storm: Proactive versus reactive compensatory consumption. Journal of Consumer Research, 39(4), 815-830.
  28. Ko, E., Chun, E., Song, S., & Mattila, P. (2015). Exploring SNS as a consumer tool for retail therapy: Explicating semantic networks of “shopping makes me happy (unhappy)” as a new product development method. Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science, 25(1), 37-48.
  29. Köknel, Ö. (2005). Kaygıdan Mutluluğa Kişilik, 17. Bs., İstanbul: Altın Kitaplar Yayınevi.
  30. Krishen, A. S., Bui, M., & Peter, P. C. (2010). Retail kiosks: How regret and variety influence consumption. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 38(3), 173-189.
  31. Lonsdale, S. (1994). Shopping as therapy. Star Tribune, 11, 1-13.
  32. Luomala, H. T. (1998). A mood-alleviative perspective on self-gift behaviours: Stimulating consumer behaviour theory development. Journal of Marketing Management, 14(1-3), 109-132.
  33. Luomala, H. T., Kumar, R., Worm, V., & Singh, J. D. (2004). Cross-cultural differences in mood-regulation: An empirical comparison of individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 16(4), 39-62.
  34. Mandel, N., Rucker, D. D., Levav, J., & Galinsky, A. D. (2017). The compensatory consumer behavior model: How self-discrepancies drive consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 27(1), 133-146.
  35. McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1983). Social desirability scales: More substance than style. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 51(6), 882-888.
  36. McCrae, R. R., & John, O. P. (1992). An introduction to the five‐factor model and its applications. Journal of personality, 60(2), 175-215.
  37. Mick, D. G., DeMoss, M., & Faber, R. J. (1992). A projective study of motivations and meanings of self-gifts: Implications for retail management. Journal of Retailing, 68(2), 122-145.
  38. Mooradian, T. A., & Olver, J. M. (1996). Shopping motives and the five factor model: An integration and preliminary study. Psychological Reports, 78(2), 579-592.
  39. Mooradian, T. A., & Olver, J. M. (1996). Shopping motives and the five factor model: An integration and preliminary study. Psychological Reports, 78(2), 579-592.
  40. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric methods. New York: McGraw Hill.
  41. Özcan, B. (2007). Postmodernizmin tüketim imajları. Fırat Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 17(1), 261-273.
  42. Rath, T. (2010). Your spending and your financial wellbeing. Gallup Management Journal Online, 1.
  43. Rick, S. I., Pereira, B., & Burson, K. A. (2014). The benefits of retail therapy: Making purchase decisions reduces residual sadness. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 24(3), 373-380.
  44. Robins, N. (1999). Making sustainability bite: transforming global consumption patterns. Journal of Sustainable Product Design, 7-16.
  45. Rook, D. W., & Gardner, M. P. (1993). In the mood: impulse buying’s affective antecedents. Research in consumer behavior, 6(7), 1-28.
  46. Rucker, D. D., & Galinsky, A. D. (2008). Desire to acquire: Powerlessness and compensatory consumption. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(2), 257-267.
  47. Sivanathan, N., & Pettit, N. C. (2010). Protecting the self through consumption: Status goods as affirmational commodities. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(3), 564-570.
  48. Son, J. & Chang, H. J. J., (2016). Retail Therapy: What Makes You Feel Relieved and Happy? International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings. 54.
  49. Somer, O., Korkmaz, M., & Tatar, A. (2002). Beş Faktör Kişilik Envanteri’nin geliştirilmesi-I: Ölçek ve alt ölçeklerin oluşturulması. Türk Psikoloji Dergisi, 17(49), 21-33.
  50. Thayer, R. E., Newman, J. R., & McClain, T. M. (1994). Self-regulation of mood: Strategies for changing a bad mood, raising energy, and reducing tension. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(5), 910-925.
  51. Underhill, P. (2009). Why we buy: The science of shopping--updated and revised for the Internet, the global consumer, and beyond. Simon and Schuster, New York.
  52. Uyar K. & Lekesizcan F. S. (2017). Markanın benliği ifade etmesi ve sosyal görünürlüğünün marka aşkı ile ilişkisi, Business & Management Studies: An International Journal (BMIJ), 5(4), 154-171.
  53. Wakefield, K. L., & Baker, J. (1998). Excitement at the mall: determinants and effects on shopping response. Journal of retailing, 74(4), 515-539.
  54. Weinberg, P., & Gottwald, W. (1982). Impulsive consumer buying as a result of emotions. Journal of Business research, 10(1), 43-57.
  55. Woodruffe-Burton, H. R. (1997). Compensatory consumption: why women go shopping when they’re fed up and other stories. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 15(7), 325-334.
  56. Woodruffe-Burton, H.R., & Elliott, R. (2005). Compensatory consumption and narrative identity theory. ACR North American Advances.
  57. Woodruffe-Burton, H., Eccles, S., & Elliott, R. (2002). Towards a theory of shopping: A holistic framework. Journal of Consumer Behaviour: An International Research Review, 1(3), 256-266.
  58. Yanbastı, G. (1991). Theories of personality. Ege University Faculty of Education press, İzmir.
  59. Yoo, K.H., & U. Gretzel. (2011). Influence of personality on travel related consumer-generated media creation CHB, 27, 609-621.
  60. Yurchisin, J., Yan, R. N., Watchravesringkan, K., & Chen, C. (2008). Investigating the role of life status changes and negative emotions in compensatory consumption among college students. College Student Journal, 42(3), 860-869.