Mukaddes Çiçek
Kafkas Üniversitesi, İİBF, İşletme Bölümü
Atılhan Naktiyok
Atatürk Üniversitesi, İİBF, İşletme Bölümü

Published 2013-12-26

How to Cite

Çiçek, M., & Naktiyok, A. (2013). THE EFFECT OF CRITICAL AND CREATIVE THINKING ON STRATEGIC THINKING: A SURVEY ON MANAGERS. Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, 1(1), 39–61. https://doi.org/10.15295/bmij.v1i1.41


The basic aim of this study is to research the relationships between strategic thinking, critical thinking and creative thinking. In this study, primarily the theoritical rudiments given here about this thinking styles, and then researched whether or relationship between them and its direction if any, by the help of scales. In the empiric phase of this study, a questionnaire was conducted to explore the existence of three different thinking ability, on 224 managers working in Turkish Incorporated Company. Data which contained this phase are interpreted by the statistical analyzes that fit structure of survey, in order to testhypotheses directing survey. It is confirmed that critical and creative thinking styles are meaningfully and strongly effecting strategic thinking in paralel with positive relationships between strategic, critical and creative thinking styles, when findings are examined.


Download data is not yet available.


  1. Abraham, Anna ve Sabine Windmann (2007). “Creative Cognition: The Diverse Operations and The Prospect of
  2. Applying a Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective”. Methods 42: 38-48.
  3. Alkhafaji, Abbas F. (2003). Strategic Management Formulation, Implementation and Control in a Dynamic Environment. U.S.: The Howorth Press.
  4. Amabile, Teresa M. (1998). “How to Kill Creativity”, Harward Business Review 76 (5): 77-87. Baker, Colin (1990). Key Issues in Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. U.K.: Short Run Press.
  5. Bandrowski, James F. (1990). Corporate Imagination Plus: Five Steps to Translating Innovative Strategies into Action. New York: Free Press.
  6. Bonn Ingrid (2001). “Developing Strategic Thinking as a Core Competency”. Management Decision 39 (1): 63-72. Bonn Ingrid (2005). “Improving Strategic Thinking: A Multilevel Approach”. Leadership and Development Journal
  7. (5/6): 336-354.
  8. Daghir, Munqith M. ve Kais I.H.Al Zaydie (2005). “The Measurement of Strategic Thinking Type for Top Managers in Iraqı Public Organizations-Cognitive Approach”. IJCM 15 (1): 34-46.
  9. Daniels, Rick (2004). Nursing Fundamentals Caring & Clinical Decision Making. U.S.: Delmar Thompson Learning.
  10. Doyague-Munoz, Nuria Gonzalez-Alvarez ve Mariano Nieto (2008). “An Examination of İndividual Factors and Employees’ Creativity, The Case of Spain”. Creativity Research Journal 20 (1): 21-33.
  11. Facione, Peter A. (1998). Critical Thinking, What is and Why it Counts. Proceedings of The Second Design Workshop, Santa Clara University: California Academic Press.
  12. Goldman, Ellen F. (2005). Becoming an Expert Strategic Thinker: The Learning Journey of Healtcare CEO’s. Doktora Tezi. Washington: The Graduate School of Education and Human Development of Washington University.
  13. Goldman, Ellen, Terence Cahill, Rubens Pessanha Filho ve Laurence M. Merlis (2009). “Experiences that Develop The Ability to Think Strategically”. Journal of Healthcare Management 54 (6): 403-417.
  14. Goyne, June Stokes (2001). Critical Thinking in Nursing, Perceptions of Nursing Educators. Doktora Tezi.
  15. Alabama: Auburn University.
  16. Green, Andy (2007). Creativity in Public Relations. Third Edition. Chartered Institute of Public Relations: PR in Practice Series.
  17. Guffey, Mary Ellen (2008). Business Communication, Process & Product. Sixth Edition. U.S.: South Western Cengage Learning.
  18. Hançerlioğlu, Orhan (1976). Felsefe Ansiklopedisi, Cilt 1, A-D, İstanbul: Remzi Kitabevi.
  19. Hamel Gary, C. K. Prahalad (1989). “Strategic Intent”. Harward Business Review May-June: 148-161.
  20. Helgerson, Leslie J. Sam (2007). Law and Order, Teaching Critical and Strategic Thinking for a Complex World.
  21. Doktora Tezi. Minnesota: Capella University.
  22. Heracleous, Loizos (2003). Strategy and Organization, Realizing Strategic Management. U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
  23. Hinton, Perry R., Charlotte Brawnlow, Isabella Mcmurray ve Bob Cozens (2004). SPSS Explained. Great Britain:
  24. Routledge.
  25. Hughes, Richard L. ve Katherine Colarelli Beatty (2005). Becoming a Strategic Leader: Your Role in Your Organization’s Enduring Success. San Francisco: Wiley & Sons.
  26. Hurson, Tim (2008). Think Better: An Innovator’s Guide to Productive Thinking. U.S.: Mcgraw Hill Companies. Köseoğlu, Mehmet Ali, Mehmet Barca ve Kemal Karayormuk (2010). “Stratejik Yönetim Düşüncesi Nasıl
  27. Öğretiliyor? Akademisyenler Üzerine Bir Araştırma”. 18. Ulusal Yönetim ve Örgüt Kongresi Bildiriler Kitabı. Adana: Çkurova Üniversitesi.
  28. Lakhani, Dave (2006). The Power of an Hour, Business and Life Mastery in one Hour a Week. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
  29. Leech, N. L, K. C Barrett, G. A. Morgan (2005). Spss for Intermediate Statistics. Use and Interpretation. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  30. Liedtka, Jeanne M. (1998a). “Linking Strategic Thinking with Strategic Planning”. Strategy and Leadership 26 (4): 30-35.
  31. Liedtka, Jeanne M. (1998b). “Strategic Thinking: Can it be Taught?” Long Range Planning 31 (1): 120-129. Loehle, Craig (2000). Thinking Strategically: Power Tools for Personal and Proffessional Advancement. U.K.:
  32. Cambridge University Press.
  33. Mintzberg, Henry (1994). “The Fall and Rise of Strategic Planning”. Harward Business Review 72 (1): 107-114. Moon, Jeniffer A. (2008). Critical Thinking, an Exploration of Theory and Practice. New York: Routledge
  34. Publishing.
  35. Morgan, George Arthur ve Orlando V. Griego (1998). Easy Use and Interpretation of SPSS for Windows: Answering Research Quesitons with Statistics. U.S.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  36. Morgan, Stacie L.L. (1996). The Strategic Knowledge Indicator, Doktora Tezi. Cincinnati: The Union Institute. Naktiyok, Atılhan (2004). İç Girişimcilik, İstanbul: Beta Basım Yayım Dağıtım.
  37. Naktiyok, Atılhan, C. Nur Karabey, M. Kürşat Timuroğlu ve Hüseyin Daştan (2009). Stratejik Planlama, Ankara:
  38. İmaj Yayınevi.
  39. Ohmae, Kenichi (1982). The Mind of The Strategist: The Art of Japenese Business. U.S.: Mcgraw-Hill.
  40. Olson, John A. (1999). “What Academic Librarians Should Know About Creative Thinking”. The Journal of Academic Librarianship 25 (5): 383-389.
  41. Paul, Richard ve Linda Elder (2006). The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking-Concepts and Tools. New Jersey: The Foundation For Critical Thinking.
  42. Paulhus, Delroy L., Daria C. Lysy, Michelle S. M. Yik (1998). “Self-Report Measures of Intelligence: Are They Useful as Proxy IQ Tests?” Journal of Personality 66: 525-554.
  43. Pisapia, John R. (2009). The Strategic Leader, New Tactics for a Globalizing Word. U.S.: Information Age Publishing.
  44. Pisapia, John, Daniel-Reyes Guerra ve Eleni Coukos-Semmel (2005). “Developing Leader’s Strategic Mindset: Establishing The Measures”. Leadership Review 5: 41-68.
  45. Pisapia, John, Nicholas Sun-Keung Pang, Tie Fatt Hee, Ying Lin ve John D. Morris (2009). “A Comparison of The Use of Strategic Thinking Skills of Aspiring School Leaders in Hong Kong, Malaysia, Shanghai, and The United States: An Exploratory Study”. International Educational Studies 2 (2): 46-58.
  46. Pollegrino, Kimberly C. (1996). Strategic Thinking Ability: Cognitive and Personality Effects, Doktora Tezi.
  47. Louisiana: Louisiana Tech University.
  48. Quinn, Francis M. (2000). The Principles and Practice of Nurse Education. U.K.: Stanley Thornes.
  49. Sare, Michele V. ve LeAnn Ogilvie (2010). Strategic Planning for Nurses, Change Management in Health Care.
  50. U.S.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
  51. Stacey Ralph D. (1992). Managing The Unknowable: Strategic Boundaries Between Order and Chaos in Organizations. U.S.: Jossey Bass Publishing.
  52. Torrance, E. Paul (1969). “Creativity. What Research Says to Teacher”. National Education Association DC 28: 593-629.
  53. Torrance, E. Paul (1977). Creativity in The Classroom”. National Education Association Washington DC, CS 203, 1 (5): 115-153.
  54. Torrance, E. Paul (2002). The Manifesto: A Guide to Developing a Creative Carreer. U.S.: Publications in Creativity Research Series.
  55. Türk Dil Kurumu, Bsts Eğitim Terimleri Sözlüğü, Erişim Tarihi: 26.01.2010 http://tdkterim.gov.tr/bts/?kategori=verilst&kelime=d%FC%FE%FCnme&ayn=tam
  56. Ülgen, Hayri ve Kadri Mirze (2004). İşletmelerde Stratejik Yönetim. İstanbul: Literatür Yayınları.
  57. Weiten, Wayne, Margaret A. Lloyd, Dana S. Dunn ve Elizabeth Yost Hammer (2009). Psychology Applied to Modern Life: Adjustment in the 21st Century, 9th Edition. U.S.A.: Wadsword Cengage Learning.
  58. Wootton, Simon ve Terry Horne (2003). Strategic Thinking, A Step-By-Step Approach to Strategy. Second Edition.
  59. Great Britain: Kogan Page.
  60. Sample Size Calculator, Available at http://www.surveysystem.com/sscalc.htm